So was he a hero or a traitor

We build our reality on our beliefs.

And although we don’t admit that they are only our beliefs we do set our lives by them. They become us – our reality - and woe to anyone who tries to ridicule or challenge our faith.

Through the recent discovery of certain biblical-like documents, scholars are now toying with the understanding that Judas was the true buddy of Jesus rather than his traitor. According to these writings, Jesus so trusted Judas that he selected him out of all the other apostles to co-ordinate the role and act as a traitor - to fulfil the prophecy.

Will Judas now be declared as a saint and a martyr? If these writings are accepted to be true what will happen to all Christian believers?

Here is another example.

Millions believe that the American astronauts ascended on the moon and returned back. At this point in time, I am not opening the argument of a moon hoax but, what will happen to these millions when in the not too distant future it will be revealed that it was all a hoax?

Both religion and science could create fanatics from their followers. Belief is a very sensitive and dangerous thing. Confusion and chaos are still the price for many a different belief.

Both God and gravity are still a phenomenon. They are both unproven entities and yet man hold on to what he thinks about them as fact. As regards to gravity, man today is still in the dark as he was when he believed that the earth was flat. Here, may I ask, what if all the planets (including our moon) have the same gravitational forces? It is quite a different story when a non-scientist dares to direct reasoned criticism at science - the majority of professional scientists immediately object. I consider myself as another Faraday.

The sad thing is that we are easily entangled into illusions and let these same illusions direct our lives. We should always question certain issues that are coming from the so-called ‘reliable’ sources (media, government and institutions). There may be hidden agendas behind everything we hear or see - such as marketing issues for purposes beyond our knowing.

To doubt and question is healthy.

It can provide you with an opportunity to explore horizons that previously were inaccessible due to the narrow outlook of the issue.

Everybody can now generate their own solar energy

: If you have already ruled out home solar panel as an alternative means of power because of its expensive price, then better think again. Indeed, solar panels nowadays, especially those that can be used to provide enough power for most of your appliances, are exorbitantly priced. The price of a system can run from $20,000 up to $50,000 depending on your energy needs. This is why many regrettably have to give up plans of setting up home solar panels on their rooftops. There are other means of acquiring solar gadgets without having to spend so much. First of all, there are many second hand or used solar panels that anyone can buy from solar dealers – these are priced much less than the brand new ones but are still in good running condition. Is it okay to buy second-hand or used home solar panel for your home instead of buying a brand new one? Of course, especially if the used solar panel that you bought is still of good running condition. However, pass up on solar items that have major defects or damage on them. You might also decide on passing up on the old model type of solar panels on sale. Better think again. The older, very first home solar panels are the ones that are durable and really functioning well. They simply are such great buys especially if used properly and well taken care of by the previous owner. As for the lifespan of a used solar panel, it can really be hard to tell. Some takes years and years before bogging down and needing some repair or a replacement on a spare part or two. Most of the time, the gadget is installed on the appropriate location or top of your roof and that’s it. You let it be as it needs minimal maintenance. The main thing to do when buying used home solar panels is to avoid those that have damage on them, such as cracks and broken glass, moisture on the glass and damaged lines and connections. Unless you have extra cash to repair these defects, then it is best to steer away from these used solar products. If purchasing your own full system is outside your budget indeed there is a more affordable way to take advantage of solar for you electrical needs. A product is now available where you can actually rent the whole solar panel system for no more than you pay the electric company for energy. A company called Citizenre has come up with an innovative way to make solar an affordable lifestyle choice. Citizenre REnU program packages solar power for you in a simple and smart way. Plainly put, the Citizenre Corporation pays for, installs, owns and operates the solar installation. You don’t have to worry about maintaining the equipment or any of the other concerns that come with making an investment into solar power. All you have to do is pay a flat monthly rent. You generate your own, renewable energy from the solar panels you rent and this power offsets the power you were buying from your utility. Your savings can cover the monthly rent and even put money back in your pocket. And since your rent is locked in for up to 25 years, you can save significantly over time as electricity prices continue to rise. These are some of the benefits the customers receive: -No upfront investment, no need to become a financial expert to justify your investment. -No waiting for rebates. -No headaches with the city and the utility; let us handle the engineering, procurement, and construction. -With our flat monthly rent and our “Performance Guarantee” you can generate your own, renewable electricity and pay for the rent with your savings. Since your Agreement will show the amount of energy your system can generate, it is simple to calculate your savings. -Hassle-free operating and maintenance; it’s handled by the experts. -Actual hedge against future utility price increases: you can “lock in” your rates for the electricity generated from the solar system at your home for a period of up to twenty-five years, far longer than the guaranteed rates offered by other electricity providers. Indeed, a solar panel, whether brand new, second hand or rented, is definitely a wise choice as it helps you in minimizing your electric bills, helps the worlds growing energy needs and is especially an environmentally healthy and helpful choice. If you're interested in getting more info on a free solar panel installation check out www. jointhesolution. com/rethink-solar Also if your interested in joining the solution and becoming a Citizenre sales associate check out www. powur. net/rethink-solar

The complexity of simplicity

"Everything is simpler than you think and at the same time more complex than you imagine."

(Johann Wolfgang von Goethe)

Complexity rises spontaneously in nature through processes such as self-organization. Emergent phenomena are common as are emergent traits, not reducible to basic components, interactions, or properties.

Complexity does not, therefore, imply the existence of a designer or a design. Complexity does not imply the existence of intelligence and sentient beings. On the contrary, complexity usually points towards a natural source and a random origin. Complexity and artificiality are often incompatible.

Artificial designs and objects are found only in unexpected ("unnatural") contexts and environments. Natural objects are totally predictable and expected. Artificial creations are efficient and, therefore, simple and parsimonious. Natural objects and processes are not.

As Seth Shostak notes in his excellent essay, titled "SETI and Intelligent Design", evolution experiments with numerous dead ends before it yields a single adapted biological entity. DNA is far from optimized: it contains inordinate amounts of junk. Our bodies come replete with dysfunctional appendages and redundant organs. Lightning bolts emit energy all over the electromagnetic spectrum. Pulsars and interstellar gas clouds spew radiation over the entire radio spectrum. The energy of the Sun is ubiquitous over the entire optical and thermal range. No intelligent engineer - human or not - would be so wasteful.

Confusing artificiality with complexity is not the only terminological conundrum.

Complexity and simplicity are often, and intuitively, regarded as two extremes of the same continuum, or spectrum. Yet, this may be a simplistic view, indeed.

Simple procedures (codes, programs), in nature as well as in computing, often yield the most complex results. Where does the complexity reside, if not in the simple program that created it? A minimal number of primitive interactions occur in a primordial soup and, presto, life. Was life somehow embedded in the primordial soup all along? Or in the interactions? Or in the combination of substrate and interactions?

Complex processes yield simple products (think about products of thinking such as a newspaper article, or a poem, or manufactured goods such as a sewing thread). What happened to the complexity? Was it somehow reduced, "absorbed, digested, or assimilated"? Is it a general rule that, given sufficient time and resources, the simple can become complex and the complex reduced to the simple? Is it only a matter of computation?

We can resolve these apparent contradictions by closely examining the categories we use.

Perhaps simplicity and complexity are categorical illusions, the outcomes of limitations inherent in our system of symbols (in our language).

We label something "complex" when we use a great number of symbols to describe it. But, surely, the choices we make (regarding the number of symbols we use) teach us nothing about complexity, a real phenomenon!

A straight line can be described with three symbols (A, B, and the distance between them) - or with three billion symbols (a subset of the discrete points which make up the line and their inter-relatedness, their function). But whatever the number of symbols we choose to employ, however complex our level of description, it has nothing to do with the straight line or with its "real world" traits. The straight line is not rendered more (or less) complex or orderly by our choice of level of (meta) description and language elements.

The simple (and ordered) can be regarded as the tip of the complexity iceberg, or as part of a complex, interconnected whole, or hologramically, as encompassing the complex (the same way all particles are contained in all other particles). Still, these models merely reflect choices of descriptive language, with no bearing on reality.

Perhaps complexity and simplicity are not related at all, either quantitatively, or qualitatively. Perhaps complexity is not simply more simplicity. Perhaps there is no organizational principle tying them to one another. Complexity is often an emergent phenomenon, not reducible to simplicity.

The third possibility is that somehow, perhaps through human intervention, complexity yields simplicity and simplicity yields complexity (via pattern identification, the application of rules, classification, and other human pursuits). This dependence on human input would explain the convergence of the behaviors of all complex systems on to a tiny sliver of the state (or phase) space (sort of a mega attractor basin). According to this view, Man is the creator of simplicity and complexity alike but they do have a real and independent existence thereafter (the Copenhagen interpretation of a Quantum Mechanics).

Still, these twin notions of simplicity and complexity give rise to numerous theoretical and philosophical complications.

Consider life.

In human (artificial and intelligent) technology, every thing and every action has a function within a "scheme of things". Goals are set, plans made, designs help to implement the plans.

Not so with life. Living things seem to be prone to disorientated thoughts, or the absorption and processing of absolutely irrelevant and inconsequential data. Moreover, these laboriously accumulated databases vanish instantaneously with death. The organism is akin to a computer which processes data using elaborate software and then turns itself off after 15-80 years, erasing all its work.

Most of us believe that what appears to be meaningless and functionless supports the meaningful and functional and leads to them. The complex and the meaningless (or at least the incomprehensible) always seem to resolve to the simple and the meaningful. Thus, if the complex is meaningless and disordered then order must somehow be connected to meaning and to simplicity (through the principles of organization and interaction).

Moreover, complex systems are inseparable from their environment whose feedback induces their self-organization. Our discrete, observer-observed, approach to the Universe is, thus, deeply inadequate when applied to complex systems. These systems cannot be defined, described, or understood in isolation from their environment. They are one with their surroundings.

Many complex systems display emergent properties. These cannot be predicted even with perfect knowledge about said systems. We can say that the complex systems are creative and intuitive, even when not sentient, or intelligent. Must intuition and creativity be predicated on intelligence, consciousness, or sentience?

Thus, ultimately, complexity touches upon very essential questions of who we, what are we for, how we create, and how we evolve. It is not a simple matter, that...

TECHNICAL NOTE - Complexity Theory and Ambiguity or Vagueness

A Glossary of the terms used here

Ambiguity (or indeterminacy, in deconstructivist parlance) is when a statement or string (word, sentence, theorem, or expression) has two or more distinct meanings either lexically (e. g., homonyms), or because of its grammar or syntax (e. g., amphiboly). It is the context, which helps us to choose the right or intended meaning ("contextual disambiguating" which often leads to a focal meaning).

Vagueness arises when there are "borderline cases" of the existing application of a concept (or a predicate). When is a person tall? When does a collection of sand grains become a heap (the sorites or heap paradox)?, etc. Fuzzy logic truth values do not eliminate vagueness - they only assign continuous values ("fuzzy sets") to concepts ("prototypes").

Open texture is when there may be "borderline cases" in the future application of a concept (or a predicate). While vagueness can be minimized by specifying rules (through precisifaction, or supervaluation) - open texture cannot because we cannot predict future "borderline cases".

It would seem that a complexity theory formalism can accurately describe both ambiguity and vagueness:

Language can be construed as a self-organizing network, replete with self-organized criticality.

Language can also be viewed as a Production System (Iterated Function Systems coupled with Lindenmeyer L-Systems and Schemas to yield Classifiers Systems). To use Holland's vocabulary, language is a set of Constrained Generating Procedures.

"Vague objects" (with vague spatial or temporal boundaries) are, actually, best represented by fractals. They are not indeterminate (only their boundaries are). Moreover, self-similarity is maintained. Consider a mountain - where does it start or end and what, precisely, does it include? A fractal curve (boundary) is an apt mathematical treatment of this question.

Indeterminacy can be described as the result of bifurcation leading to competing, distinct, but equally valid, meanings.

Borderline cases (and vagueness) arise at the "edge of chaos" - in concepts and predicates with co-evolving static and chaotic elements.

(Focal) meanings can be thought of as attractors.

Contexts can be thought of as attractor landscapes in the phase space of language. They can also be described as fitness landscapes with optimum epistasis (interdependence of values assigned to meanings).

The process of deriving meaning (or disambiguating) is akin to tracing a basin of attraction. It can be described as a perturbation in a transient, leading to a stable state.

Saving the world with forensic science

Forensic Science is the application of science in forensic studies, the forensic part of forensic science implies that it is to be utilized in some form or another with a court of law and is relevant to legal proceedings. Forensic Science is rapidly progressing to the point that the science fiction of today could well be the science reality of tomorrow.

Forensic Science has been around for many centuries. However, it was not until recently that advances in scientific research and scientific studies made this a true and individual aspect of forensic research. Recent studies and research have brought the field of forensic science to new heights and given it increasing credibility and importance as a deciding factor in many legal proceedings, where forensic evidence often outweighs the testimony even of witnesses on the scene.

Almost everybody has heard of DNA evidence or fluorescing as well as many other recent scientific developments in forensic science. While many of us get our information from television programs such as CSI, the reality is that forensic science is rapidly moving from the realm of television to the broader expanse of the real world. DNA evidence is now an important part of most legal proceedings involving any human body. Whether discussing fibers from hair, clothes or even something so mundane as dust, forensic science can often draw conclusions and point to irrefutable facts that often lead to convictions of criminals who, if not for forensic science, would be free to commit more atrocities.

Fibers can have a telling tale that can only be exposed by the use of forensic science. Carpet fibers are unique to makes and manufacturers. Gunpowder contains microscopic residue that can correctly identify the type of powder, the manufacturer of the shell and much more information. Simple particles of dust, when viewed by using forensic science can place items or individuals at definitive places often down to an exact time frame. Something that we may see as just a bug or insect can tell how long an item has been in a particular location. There are many factors that are explored with Forensic Science. The scientific conclusion offers irrefutable proof and can be an effective tool in the fight against crime.

Advances in science and in particular with forensic science are not only new and fascinating but are constantly improving and being refined. Not only is forensic science a great tool for today, but the future looks bright indeed. An interest in Forensic science may even help the underachiever of today take enough interest in science and related fields of study to turn around and study harder to become the next practitioner of forensic science tomorrow. Forensic science benefits society as a whole in many different ways.

Understanding the check engine light

On all modern vehicles there is a computer that controls the way the engine operates, this computer is called Electronic Control Module, or ECM. The purpose of the ECM is to maintain the engine running within emissions limits and at top efficiency. With the very strict emission regulations of today, this is not an easy task to achieve. Precise and constant adjustments to match various conditions of the engine must be made by the ECM in regards to speed, load, engine temperature and others.

How the ECM works:

A number of sensors are available that provide the ECM with the information it needs, such inputs are engine and ambient temperature, vehicle speed and load. The ECM makes adjustments by advancing or retarding the ignition timing, adds or subtracts fuel or increases and decreases the idle speed.

In the exhaust, before the catalytic converter, an oxygen sensor monitors the quality of the combustion produced in the cylinders. The sensor produces a feedback that is then used by the ECM to make fine adjustments to the fuel-air mixture with the objective to reduce emissions. After the catalytic converter, another sensor in the exhaust monitors it's efficiency

Other additional emission control systems exist, such as the Evaporative System, or EVAP. The objective of EVAP is to prevent vapors of gasoline, from the gas tank, from being released into the atmosphere. There are also a number of sensors and actuators that are controlled by the ECM.

The operation of sensors and other engine components is constantly tested by the self-diagnostic capability of the ECM. If one of the signals is missing or if it's not in the normal range then the Check Engine light is illuminated and the Diagnostic Trouble Code, DTC, is stored in the memory of the ECM. The Check Engine light will be illuminated also if a mechanical component, such as the EGR valve, fails.

With a special scan tool, the stored code can be retrieved by a technician, that will then know only a direction where to look for. The code doesn't tell specific information about the failure, certain tests have to be performed for each code, in order to find the exact cause of the problem.

Sir isaac newton and the three laws of determinism

Sir Isaac Newton and the Three Laws of Determinism

In the foreword to the first edition of the well-known "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy" the great physicist, Sir Isaac Newton wrote, in particular, that it would be desirable to extend the harmonious principles of mechanics to other natural phenomena. Since then, there were some attempts to identify certain analogies to mechanics in a number of separate sciences. However in a broad sense, the wish of Newton remained unrealized.

Today, with the advent of the concept Ring Determinism, we at last, have an opportunity to generalize the mechanics of Newton over a wide range of phenomena.

Let's start with the First law of Newton, which states: In the absence of external influences, a material body remains in a condition of rest or continues in uniform and rectilinear movement through inertia. This law is also known as "the law of inertia". And what is inertia? As a matter of fact, it describes the ability of a body to preserve the initial parameters of its own motion.

The formula of the Newton's second law is: F = m • a, where F = the size of the external force, m = size of inert mass, a = size of the acceleration of a body. If we rewrite this as: a = F / m it becomes obvious, that the larger the mass of a body, the greater external effort is required to apply the same acceleration to it. Actually, inertial mass here acts as a measure of its own internal resistance to the influence of the external force.

The third law of Newton states that any external influence on a body causes an equal and opposite action from the body. In other words, any separate body can adequately "answer" an external influence.

It is necessary to pay attention to the fact that in these laws, there is transparently implied for each separate material body, a certain special internal self-determining mechanism, the origin of which demonstrates an ability towards self-preservation and resistance to external influences. Until now, only teleology tried to explain the presence in each separate body of a special internal determination. There is no such explanation in the framework of materialism.

With the advent of the concept of Ring Determinism, it is possible to give this a strict scientific explanation and to generalize this and apply it to a wide range of phenomena. The concept of ring determinism asserts that in the case of casual or intentional closure of the ends of a segment of any causal chain, there is the creation of a closed causal steady or quasi-stable natural formation. Through continuous internal circulation, a specific internal determining stream can arise. The idea is that the presence of this continuous internal stream gives rise to creation of a new determining origin, which allows new formations. This is not only to affirm itself as a separate natural factor with a set of its own special properties, but also to oppose itself against the world and every possible external influence in material, power, force, information and other aspects.

Inertia is an example of a mechanical display of internal determining origins. Generally, displays of this origin can be rather diverse. It concerns the sphere of electromagnetic phenomena, and processes in biology, anthropology, politics, sociology, pedagogics and other spheres. But in all cases, the panel of regulations noted by Newton, can be generalized by way of the following three laws of determinism:

The first law of determinism: In the absence of external influences, the separate natural formation retains its condition or continues motion, function, behaviour, development under the influence of its own internal determination.

The second law of determinism: the more strongly (of higher power) its own internal determining origin is expressed (developed), the greater the external effort that must be applied to its movement (life, behaviour, development) to induce change.

The third law of determinism: any external influence on a separate natural formation causes a corresponding reaction, as long as it keeps its structural and functional integrity. Clearly, this action is organized, carried out and directed by its own internal determination.

This necessarily applies the widest spectrum of things surrounding us, including temporary social groups, mighty atmospheric formations, computer software products, psychological aims and others that exhibit a separate natural formation.

So, the generalization of Newton's laws apply to a broad range of experience and enable us to say that they conform to constructive ordered principles. Furthermore the general theory of determinism receives a necessary modification.

President clinton says biotech industry has a job to do

At the Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) convention earlier this month in Chicago, former President Bill Clinton sent a message to those in attendance: the biotechnology industry has a job to do.

In his speech, the former President discussed the importance that biotechnology has in food security and health issues in the developing world. He said the first obligation of society is to feed people and that biotechnology can help individuals feed more people while addressing environmental concerns. He also stressed the need for interdependence in the world today as well as the unsolved problems that biotechnology is uniquely suited to face.

Clinton also discussed the need to efficiently manage agricultural production. He mentioned several key aspects of environmental health that agricultural biotechnology can address, including climate change and top soil erosion.

“All of these applications of biotechnology have the potential to lift people out of poverty,” he said.

The former President also asserted that scientific evidence should rule any debate over issues such as genetically modified foods. He said that in America, we “should be driven by science, evidence, and argument, not by assertion and fear.”

Former President Clinton called upon the biotechnology industry to work to reduce the spread of a variety of diseases, including infectious diseases, guard against pandemics, create genetically engineered foods that will feed more of the world’s hungry, tap into sources of renewable energy, and confront global warming head on.

“When we empower individuals to feed and care for their families,” he said. “It is a good thing.”

As President, Bill Clinton supported the development of biotechnology and its practical applications in American life, as well as the development of genetic engineering and agriculture, and since he left office in 2001, President Clinton has dedicated almost all of his time to support causes, from raising funds for Hurricane Katrina victims in the United States to helping individuals with AIDS receive the drugs they need. He has seen first hand the needs that biotechnology can address around the world and the good that genetically modified foods can bring to developing nations in feeding the poor.

I agree with what former President Clinton said in his speech. Modern biotechnology holds such an importance in the world today and these continued developments should not be driven by the fearful beliefs that those opposed to biotechnology and genetically modified foods continuously try to impose upon the general public.

The world needs to support biotechnology, genetically modified foods, and the innovative developments the technology can bring in order to ensure a better future and life for all.

Increasing applications of micro bubbles

There have been a lot of research studies on micro bubbles in recent years.

Micro bubbles are miniature gas bubbles of less than 50 microns diameter in water. The micro bubbles, which mostly contain oxygen or air, can remain suspended in the water for an extended period. Gradually, the gas within the micro bubbles dissolves into the water and the bubbles disappear. These bubbles are generated by various types of aerators now available in the market.

These micro bubbles, being of extremely small size, are characterized by having electrical charges. They attract suspended floating particles very effectively. This particular property has been used in sludge treatment by using the micro bubbles to capture and float organic matters, thus decreasing the time required for the sludge treatment.

Micro bubbles have also been introduced by the Japanese to market safe and good tasting oysters. Micro bubbles of concentrated oxygen containing about 2% ozone can be used to inactivate norovirus in shellfish and oysters. This norovirus is one of the major pathogens causing food poisoning in winter. This is a much more cost effective method compared to cultivating the oysters in sterile seawater and using chlorine-based germicide.

Another emergent usage of micro bubbles is in the areas of cancer treatment. Scientists are in the process of developing a method of diagnosing cancer lesions by injecting micro bubbles into the blood stream. During the ultrasonic scan for cancer lesions, the micro bubbles contract and expand rapidly due to the pressures produced by the ultrasonic beam. Groups of the micro bubbles at cancerous tumours will show up very visibly on ultrasonic scans to indicate the presence of cancerous cells.

Due to their large surface area volume ratio, micro bubbles can penetrate deeply into a surface for effective cleaning. This cleaning effect of micro bubbles is used in cleaning the inside of vegetables such as cabbage and radish sprout, as well as maintenance of freshness with vegetables in one particular vegetable processing center in Japan.

On a more personal level, the micro bubbles can penetrate deeply into skin for a good scrub without the need for any shampoo or soap. This skin treatment has been introduced within some spas in Japan as well as shops specializing in bathing pets. Needless to say, the baths are especially helpful for pets which have skin allergies to pet shampoos.

Suwa companies are also developing a small handy micro bubble generator which can be used at home. With all the product development going on, very soon, you may be able to purchase a micro bubble generator at your electronics store and relax in a micro bubble bath at home.

The bio-ethanol fuel dilemma - a qualitative research

ABSTRACT

Bio-fuels are non-fossil fuels, produced from agriculture sources, residues, and waste. Bio-ethanol refers to ethanol produced from crops (e. g., corn-ethanol and sugar-ethanol) and from waste (i. e., biomass-ethanol). “The motivation for developing bio-ethanol as a transportation fuel is based on concerns about energy security, environmental quality, economic competitiveness, and stabilization of the agricultural sector.” (National Research Council [NRC], 1999, p. 6) Brazil’s three-decade experience in sugarcane-ethanol is considered a success by its government, although criticized by some researchers (Pimentel, 2001; Pimentel et al., 2002). Corn-ethanol production in North America is highly controversial; its cost, its energy balance, and its socio-economical effects are strongly debated between researchers. Biomass-ethanol, produced from farm and municipality waste is still in its early technological and industrial development. This quantitative research presents and analyzes the arguments, and concludes with recommendations for the short - and the long-term; recommendations that are best suited? for North America and that take into account all the aspects presented in this research paper.

Corn-ethanol is not expected, and will never replace the fossil-gasoline consumption in North America, but could only be an alternative for up-to-fifteen percents at most: “increased production of ethanol from corn is a low-risk, viable short term solution” (Herwick & Wheeler, 2005, p. 28). Biomass-ethanol, in contrast to corn-ethanol, could be “an effective strategy for displacing petroleum…. Ultimately, producing ethanol from biomass will be more cost effective and necessary to achieve significant volume…. In total, 66B [billion] to 107B gallon of ethanol could be produced annually from [all sources of] biomass: it would be sufficient to support E60 to E70 [i. e., 60 to 70 percent of liquid fuel consumption], [and] displace approximately half of the petroleum used” (Herwick & Wheeler, 2005, pp. 27-28). Nevertheless, the technology for economical production of biomass-ethanol is still in early development, and President George W. Bush’s pledge, in his January 29th, 2006, State of the Union Address “to fund the research on cutting-edge methods of producing [biomass] ethanol” (Energy Policy Act, 2005; U. S. Energy Bill, 2005) is key to achieving the goal of producing 7.5 billion gallons of bio-ethanol in 2015.

Addressing the problem of energy crisis in general, the 2005 symposium concludes that “the reality is that we can no longer just drill our way to global energy security. We must innovate our way to energy security — we must find new technologies that uncover new fossil energy sources, that conserve energy, that protect the environment, and that provide multiple, sustainable sources of energy.” (National Academy of Engineering [NAE], 2006, p. 163)

TABLE OF CONTENT

ABSTRACT 1

BACKGROUND 2

Background 2

Bio-fuels 3

Anhydrous and Hydrous Ethanol 4

The Research Paper 5

CORN-ETHANOL 6

Economical Cost/ Benefit Analysis 6

Production cost. 6

Energy balance. 7

Consumer’s preferences. 11

Governments’ role. 13

Environmental Aspects 17

Greenhouse gas emissions. 17

Waterways contamination. 18

Soil contamination. 18

Groundwater contamination. 18

Negative impacts. 20

National Aspects 20

Social Aspects 21

Moral Aspects 23

BIOMASS-ETHANOL 25

Sources of Biomass for Ethanol 26

Agricultural Residues 26

Energy Crops 27

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) 27

Forestry and Mill Wastes 28

CONCLUSIONS 28

REFERENCES 31

CONCLUSIONS

Current corn-ethanol production methods use a significant amount of energy; by using alternative sources as energy inputs (other than petroleum) in the ethanol conversion, the net energy balance of corn-ethanol would be positive. When we include externalities, the ethanol energy balance would even outperform that of petroleum-based liquid fuel. Assessing all the factors, the corn-ethanol has overall positive economical cost/benefit value. The social aspects of corn-ethanol, as discussed in this paper, emphasize the possible risks, and their negative impacts on rural North America – some of which are irreversible – and local farmers should be educated about them, before they have jumped on the wagon and it is too late. The moral aspects of agriculture-for-fuel are a real concern, but as long as other products (e. g., tobacco) are grown freely in third-world countries, the argument cannot touch ordinary North Americans. The U. S. and Canadian federal governments, as well as state and provincial governments, should keep the current (relatively low) level of subsidies (i. e., 52 cents for a gallon of pure ethanol, in the US), along with fuel-tax removal – this is more or less the cost of oil’s externalities. Providing low-interest long-term loans to farmers, for the construction of ethanol plants, will not cost much to the tax payers, but will enable those farmers who have excess yield of corn to receive more value for it.

However, corn growth in North America is limited, by means of land. From the total of about ten billion bushels of corn grown in the US, only 25 billion gallons of ethanol could be produced, out of 140 billion gasoline consumed annually; therefore, corn-ethanol will never replace the petroleum liquid fuel in the US (Herwick & Wheeler, 2005, p. 7); corn-ethanol can, at highest production, provide solutions to E10 (or to E15) blends in the US. The Canadian supply of corn (and corn-ethanol) will have a very limited impact on the North American market, and will not significantly change the conclusion above.

Biomass is a great source of renewable liquid fuel, and has the potential of replacing up to half of the petroleum fuel consumed in North America. The major obstacle for reaching that goal is technology related; we need to develop an efficient conversion process, one that is cost effective and consumes less energy, and at the same time produces food - and feed-byproducts. For achieving this goal, the U. S. federal government must invest heavily in research and development.

For the long term, the solution to transportation fuel crisis should focus on fuel efficiency and reduction of fuel consumption, along with diversification of fuel sources, as concludes a symposium by National Academy of Engineering: “the reality is that we can no longer just drill our way to global energy security. We must innovate our way to energy security — we must find new technologies that uncover new fossil energy sources, that conserve energy, that protect the environment, and that provide multiple, sustainable sources of energy.” (NAE, 2006, p. 163)

FOOTNOTES

Ezra Bar, MBA, PhD Student, is a Business Process Reengineering Consultant, for Small, Mid-size, and Large organisations, and an Online Academic Mentor to Management and Engineering Students, operating globally from Toronto.

Find many other Academic and Business Articles and Papers at http://Ez-B-Process. Com/Resources. htm

Visit http://Ez-B-Process. Com/PhD. htm for Academic Mentoring.

Visit http://Ez-B-Process. Com/SME. htm for Reengineering and Small Business Consulting.

Desert problem for young earth creation science

Young-earth creationists have a problem. According to their creation model, all the fossil-bearing rock layers in the world need to be created during the Flood of Noah. Fossils, in ancient rock layers, imply that death occurred before the Fall of man, which is contrary to their interpretation of Scripture.

The most visible rock layers in the world are those in the Grand Canyon. For many years young-earth creation scientists have invested a lot of time and research into the Grand Canyon. They believe that if they can find a model to explain the canyon rocks, then their followers will probably accept the rest of the earth’s rocks as young.

Coconino Sandstone

One of the problems that the young earth model encounters in the Grand Canyon is the Coconino Sandstone. I’ve already discussed this in another article, so let me only summarize here. Geologists have stated that this formation of 315-foot thick sandstone was created by a desert environment, and is a deposition of wind-deposited sand dunes.

The problem for the young earth creationist is that this rock layer is topped by two other fossil-bearing marine rock layers, the Toroweap Limestone and the Kaibab Limestone. This presents a problem to the young-earth model because if the sandstone originated by wind, then obviously it could not have been produced by Noah’s Flood. The young-earth scientist would have to explain how the water receded, then the sandstone formed, then the water came back and deposited the other layers. However, in the Biblical Flood account, the waters rose, then fell. There were no cyclic water levels, nor was there a massive amount of time during the flood for a desert environment to create a 315-foot thick rock layer. The desert formation of this sandstone would disprove its formation during the Flood, and would disprove the young age of the earth.

Several young-earth scientists have attempted to explain this away, claiming that this sandstone was created underwater, and thus is not a desert sandstone. I dispute this theory because their model does not have the necessary forces to create the Coconino Sandstone (for more on this, see Coconino Sandstone). However, that is not the purpose of this article.

Other sandstones which are desert in origin will also disprove the young age of the earth. Therefore, the young-earth scientist must discredit every desert sandstone in the world. If one desert sandstone exists with a fossil-bearing ocean-deposited layer on top, it discredits the entire young earth flood model, and proves the old age of the earth.

Let’s look at other desert-origin sandstones. I will continually add to this article as I read through the research and discover other sandstones.

Navajo Sandstone

I’ll start with the Navajo Sandstone. This sandstone is most evident in the tall cliffs of Zion Canyon National Park in Utah. The thickness of this formation varies from 1,600 to 2,200 feet. It is evident from the excellent cross-bedding in this formation and other features that this is created from a desert environment. Below the Navajo there are thousands of feet of rock layers, including the layers of the Grand Canyon. Again, please note…all the layers of the Grand Canyon are below the Navajo.

Looking at the rocks above the Navajo, the problem for the young-earth scientist gets even more complicated.. Looking at the Navajo at Arches National Park, there are at least 1,500 feet of rock layers above the Navajo at this location alone. The first is the Entrada Sandstone, which consists of three units, the Moab and Slick Rock members, (which are themselves desert dune sandstones), and the Dewey Bridge Member, which is about 200 feet of marine deposits. Above this is the thin Summerville Formation, siltstone from a lake/lagoon environment. Then comes the most serious problem for the young earth model...the Morrison Formation. This formation has yielded thousands of dinosaur fossils, supposedly killed during Noah's Flood. Above the Morrison are the Dakota Sandstone (beach environment) and the Mancoa Shale (shallow marine).

In fact, all the dinosaur fossils are far above the Grand Canyon sediments. The young earth model says the Flood killed most of the dinosaurs1...and according to their model, all the layers of the Grand Canyon were deposited during the Flood2. That is over 1 mile of sediment. The first dinosaur fossils appear in the Chinle formation, which is two formations above the Grand Canyon layers.

How did these dinosaurs survive the deposition phase of the flood, which deposited over 8,000 feet of sediment before we see the first dinosaur fossil? Young earth explanations (see sources below) fail to offer a valid explanation of this problem…they make absolutely no sense out of the solid facts of the rock layers.

Given the young earth model, the flood waters must have created all these layers. However, you can’t have Flood-deposited rocks of the Grand Canyon, topped stratigraphically by a desert sandstone, the Navajo, to the north of the Canyon, and then covered by more sea-deposited layers. None of these layers above the Grand Canyon, including the layers above the Navajo, can be accounted for by the young-earth model.

Evidence From Creation Scientists!

Here is the most amazing evidence for the desert, wind-formed Navajo Sandstone. Creation scientists themselves admit it! I don't know if they are aware of this or not. I’ve done a review of the cornerstone book of young-earth proof of Noah's Flood and the Grand Canyon (located at the Answers In Creation website) . The book is called Grand Canyon: Monument to Catastrophe. It is published by the Institute for Creation Research. This book was put together by 14 of the pre-eminent young-earth creation scientists in the world.

On page 32 of this book, they are making a case for the Coconino Sandstone of the Grand Canyon. They claim it was deposited not in a dry, desert environment, but in a water environment. Figure 3.10 shows a plot of grain sizes for the Coconino, two modern water environments, and a "Desert Sand Dune." Through this plot, it is shown that the desert dune plots out to a straight line, whereas the Coconino, and the water environment sands, plot out as jagged, irregular lines. This is used as proof that the Coconino is not a desert sandstone.

The amazing thing is the source of the "Desert Sand Dune" grain size plots. The first paragraph in the right column, first sentence, gives the source as footnote number 44. If you turn to this footnote, the source of the desert sand grain size plot is "Stratigraphic Analysis of the Navajo Sandstone," published in the Journal of Sedimentary Petrology! That's right! These creation scientists are using the desert-created Navajo Sandstone to argue against the Coconino as being desert in origin.

However, the Navajo is overlaid with many fossil bearing rock layers, including the Morrison Formation, with thousands of dinosaurs killed during the Flood of Noah. This can't be! We now have proof, from young-earth creation scientists themselves, that the Navajo Sandstone formed as a dry, desert sandstone, right in the middle of Noah's Flood!!!! Without meaning to, they have proved the old age of the earth!

Conclusion

The Coconino and Navajo are only two desert-created sandstones. No doubt the desert formations in China and Mongolia would also disprove the young age of the earth. I will post others here, as I have time to research them. Unfortunately for the young-earth creationist, it only takes one example of desert sandstone to disprove the young age of the earth. As you can see, the earth is old, just like the geologists have told us, and just as God’s creation testifies.

1 Oard, Michael, The Extinction of the Dinosaurs. (http://www. answersingenesis. org/home/area/magazines/tj/tj_v11n2.asp)

2 Austin, Steven (ed.), Grand Canyon: Monument to Catastrophe, Institute for Creation Research, 1995

Teens need math to land dream jobs

What do doctors, lawyers and architects have in common? For one, they are among teens' hottest career choices. They also require a significant understanding of math at work every day. Despite this, many teens are not motivated to take advanced math classes to help them prepare for success in these future careers.

A telephone survey of 1,000 12- to 17-year-olds commissioned by Texas Instruments revealed that four out of five teenagers believe math is important for achieving their goals of being doctors, scientists, executives and lawyers, but only half are planning to take advanced math classes beyond their schools' minimum requirements.

The survey showed 80 percent of teens want to pursue careers in medicine, sports, science, education, business, military, law or architecture-many of which require advanced college degrees with significant focus on mathematics and science.

"Parents need to understand how important it is that they encourage their children to take higher-level courses of math while in high school," says David Mammano, founder and publisher of Next Step Magazine, which provides career advice to more than 860,000 teens. "The disconnect between teens' career aspirations and their plans to take minimal math classes could lead to students not being prepared for college-level classes or landing the job they want in the future."

"No matter what career teens choose, a strong math education is critical because it builds analytical and reasoning skills. Students need to take challenging math courses every year in high school," Mammano said.

He advises parents to work with their teenagers starting in middle school to plan out their course schedules. Parents can seek out resources to help teens understand the value of math and plan for their careers, such as MomsForMath. org, NextStepMagazine. com or Career Voyages. gov.

More tips from Mammano include:

Make Math Fun. Tie math into the things that already interest teens-their hobbies, TV or movies. A great place to start is Texas Instruments' "We All Use Math Every Day™" program that teaches math lessons based on plots featured in the hit CBS TV show "NUMB3RS." The free classroom activities are available at www. cbs. com/numb3rs.

Provide Encouragement. Challenge teens to take harder upper-level math courses even though they may not make straight A's. Parents can make a difference simply by applauding teens for the effort it takes to participate in those classes. Reinforcing everyday use of math at home, while shopping, budgeting, baking or gardening can also help increase students' interest in math.

Get Involved. Get teens involved in school or community programs such as science fairs or math team competitions that stimulate them intellectually and hone their analytical skills.

Identify Career Role Models. Find local professionals and inquire about mentorship opportunities that match teens' career interests. Teenagers can "shadow" an executive on the job to see what kind of knowledge is needed for that field.

Set The Example. They may not want you to know it, but teens look to their parents as role models. Let your teens see that you are interested in math and show them how you use it each day-at home and in your own career. Acknowledge that your teen's proficiency in math may exceed yours and that is a good thing. Also be aware that they are learning more math in different ways and this often involves the use of technology or teaching tools that might be unfamiliar to you. Talk with your teen's teachers to better understand these new advancements in math teaching. They'd likely welcome the interest.

The hoodia scams have lasted long enough

The big news about Hoodia supplements is that almost all Hoodia Gordonii products available today are ineffective – using fake hoodia. A well respected health author claims over 90% of the hoodia gordonii are known to be fake. This data seems to be backed up my major testing facilities who are claiming similar numbers.

So we did some research of our own and there's buzz on a newer Hoodia Gordonii product called Hoodia Prime. We used it on our test subject to see what she would say.

The results aren't what you might think they would be. But more on that in a minute.

When was the last time you stopped and thought about the companies that create the natural health supplements you take? Often times, it is easy to assume that the regulatory forces that ensure our food is safe, our water is clean, and our medications are effective will ensure that everything we put in our bodies is safe and sound. Unfortunately, this is not always the case. Industries such as the natural health industry can be harder to regulate and with products like Hoodia Gordonii, which is supposed to be produced almost entirely in South Africa, and the shortcuts and scams that exist are more widely spread than many purchasers realize.

So we tried Hoodia Prime. Our test subject took the suggested dosage. Nothing happened. We continued trying it, still nothing. It sure did seem like this was another hoodia Gordonii product that fell into the scam category.

But then by the end of day two, something happened. Our test subject said she was not hungry for dinner. A fluke? Perhaps. Read on.

The very next day she awoke and again was not at all hungry. This was definitely not the norm for this person, who typically ate a hearty dinner and would almost always eat a breakfast. She took her recommended dosage of two Hoodia Prime capsules in the morning with a glass of orange juice.

Again, throughout the day, no hunger whatsoever. She said she had to literally remind herself to eat, and when she did eat, it was a forced action, only because she knew she had to eat.

This Natures Biology Hoodia Prime was definitely working. But was it real Hoodia or some other ingredient that was causing the appetite suppression? Companies have been known to put other things in their capsules, and we were going to find out if this was the case here.

The lot # on our bottle had been part of a large lot that was independently tested at Alkemists Pharmaceuticals. This company tests the majority of the Hoodia on the market and has found more fakes than you'll find at a plastic surgeons office.

Theses were the three tests performed:

Analysis of Identity and Purity

Analysis of Chromatagraphy

Analysis of Macroscopy and Microscopy

Using these three tests, a company isn't going to fool anybody with any fake Hoodia. There are things they can do to get around each test, but you can't fool all three tests at once.

What we found by reviewing the tests conducted on Hoodia Prime is that it's the real deal. It passed all three rigorous tests without a hiccup, and was proved to be pure South African Hoodia Gordonii. In a world where 9 out of 10 Hoodia Gordonii products are scames, Hoodia Prime stood out and shined.

Not only did it pass the lab tests, but it passed our own test where our very own test subject used the product and verified its effectiveness. Natures Biology, the company that makes Hoodia Prime, also says it conducts its own lab tests at yet an additional lab facility.

So, our hats come off to the folks at Natures Biology for bringing a quality product like Hoodia Prime to the market. Bravo.

Having said that, if you are contemplating any other product other than Hoodia Prime, keep in mind that your Hoodia Gordonii supplement may be packed with things you don't know about. Since Hoodia took off as a weight loss option in recent years, manufacturer have been using it as a front to sell essentially useless products to buyers who don't know any better.

The main concern for many people, especially those who regularly take health supplements, is that they are getting what they paid for. The product needs to be the exact ingredients that are listed on the bottle – this is the very reason that there are laws in place requiring such labeling, to ensure those with allergies and special needs are able to accurately measure what they intake.

Yet, these safety protocols are worthless when manufacturers like those that make counterfeit Hoodia Gordonii lie on their labels and produce products that are full of fillers such as sawdust, random plants from other countries, and cheap ingredients that can by highly allergenic. Not only that, but often times these cheap ingredients will interact with existing medications that a consumer may be taking, causing an increased risk of liver, heart, or brain damage.

So tread carefully before you buy something. Pure Hoodia is certainly effective at appetite control, as proven via our test. But just remember, 9 out of 10 Hoodia Gordonii products are believed to be fake.

Finite element analysis introduction

: The following four-article series was published in a newsletter of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). It serves as an introduction to the recent analysis discipline known as the finite element method. The author is an engineering consultant and expert witness specializing in finite element analysis. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS: Introduction by Steve Roensch, President, Roensch & Associates First in a four-part series Finite element analysis (FEA) is a fairly recent discipline crossing the boundaries of mathematics, physics, engineering and computer science. The method has wide application and enjoys extensive utilization in the structural, thermal and fluid analysis areas. The finite element method is comprised of three major phases: (1) pre-processing, in which the analyst develops a finite element mesh to divide the subject geometry into subdomains for mathematical analysis, and applies material properties and boundary conditions, (2) solution, during which the program derives the governing matrix equations from the model and solves for the primary quantities, and (3) post-processing, in which the analyst checks the validity of the solution, examines the values of primary quantities (such as displacements and stresses), and derives and examines additional quantities (such as specialized stresses and error indicators). The advantages of FEA are numerous and important. A new design concept may be modeled to determine its real world behavior under various load environments, and may therefore be refined prior to the creation of drawings, when few dollars have been committed and changes are inexpensive. Once a detailed CAD model has been developed, FEA can analyze the design in detail, saving time and money by reducing the number of prototypes required. An existing product which is experiencing a field problem, or is simply being improved, can be analyzed to speed an engineering change and reduce its cost. In addition, FEA can be performed on increasingly affordable computer workstations and personal computers, and professional assistance is available. It is also important to recognize the limitations of FEA. Commercial software packages and the required hardware, which have seen substantial price reductions, still require a significant investment. The method can reduce product testing, but cannot totally replace it. Probably most important, an inexperienced user can deliver incorrect answers, upon which expensive decisions will be based. FEA is a demanding tool, in that the analyst must be proficient not only in elasticity or fluids, but also in mathematics, computer science, and especially the finite element method itself. Which FEA package to use is a subject that cannot possibly be covered in this short discussion, and the choice involves personal preferences as well as package functionality. Where to run the package depends on the type of analyses being performed. A typical finite element solution requires a fast, modern disk subsystem for acceptable performance. Memory requirements are of course dependent on the code, but in the interest of performance, the more the better, with 512 Mbytes to 8 Gbytes per user a representative range. Processing power is the final link in the performance chain, with clock speed, cache, pipelining and multi-processing all contributing to the bottom line. These analyses can run for hours on the fastest systems, so computing power is of the essence. One aspect often overlooked when entering the finite element area is education. Without adequate training on the finite element method and the specific FEA package, a new user will not be productive in a reasonable amount of time, and may in fact fail miserably. Expect to dedicate one to two weeks up front, and another one to two weeks over the first year, to either classroom or self-help education. It is also important that the user have a basic understanding of the computer's operating system. Next month's article will go into detail on the pre-processing phase of the finite element method. copyright 2005 Roensch & Associates. All rights reserved.

Lasik eye surgery complications

What are some of the possible complications of Lasik eye surgery?

Undercorrection – this occurs when the expected vision correction falls short of the desired outcome. This occurs more commonly with patients who have a high degree of nearsightedness (only objects close up are clear), farsightedness (only objects far away are clear) or astigmatism (images both far and near are distorted). Why? There is more laser corneal sculpting that needs to occur with patients having higher degrees of vision imperfection. When choosing your Lasik eye surgeon, it’s important to ask them what percentage of their patients need retreatment for undercorrection. This should be something that they are willing to freely discuss with you. If not, walk away! This is not to be confused with a planned slight undercorrection for nearsighted patients over forty years old which aids their reading vision. But this is something that you and your Lasik eye surgeon would have discussed before your surgery.

Overcorrection – this complication occurs less frequently than undercorrection and results when the amount of correction (corneal laser sculpting) exceeds what is planned. Slight overcorrection can be temporary and may resolve itself in the first month following Lasik eye surgery. Patients can manage slight overcorrections by wearing glasses until their vision resolves. Some patients with overcorrection may need additional Lasik eye surgery 3 to 6 months following their first surgery.

Dry Eye – many Lasik eye surgery patients may experience the feeling of ‘grittiness’ in their eyes following surgery. This condition usually resolves itself in 3 to 6 months and may be helped by using lubricating eye drops. Patients using birth control pills and patients going through menopause may experience this condition more often. If ‘dry eye’ continues beyond 6 months, your Lasik eye surgeon may recommend blocking your tear ducts with tiny silicon plugs to prevent tears from draining away too quickly.

Corneal abrasion – a small percentage of Lasik eye surgery patients may develop a small corneal abrasion (scrape) caused by the microkeratome (instrument used to create corneal flap) used during surgery. This abrasion is generally not serious and will heal quickly. Your Lasik eye surgeon may temporarily place a thin bandage contact lens on your eye to promote healing. While your abrasion is healing, your vision will be blurry.

Night glare – this annoying condition may not affect your vision clarity but patients may see halos or ghosting of images at night during the first month following surgery. Night glare generally improves in 3 months and often disappears within 6 months. Patients with large pupils and more severe vision impairment may be more prone to night glare.

Corneal flap complication – this occurs when the corneal flap is too small, too thin or is an irregular shape. In some cases the corneal flap may shift slightly following surgery if a patient rubs their eyes during the first 6 hours after surgery. If the flap does shift, ‘wrinkles’ can form causing distorted vision. A second procedure may be necessary to ‘smooth out’ the wrinkles and improve vision.

Infection – although this is the most feared complication of Lasik eye surgery patients, it is extremely rare. If your eye is going to become infected, chances are it will happen in the first 72 hours following surgery and will be treated with antibiotic eye drops. For this reason it is very important to avoid eye makeup, hot tubs and swimming pools for at least the first week following Lasik eye surgery.

The risks of Lasik eye surgery are low with an experienced Lasik eye surgeon but you need to be aware of possible complications prior to surgery. Your Lasik eye surgeon should freely discuss all possible complications of Lasik eye surgery prior to surgery. Do everything you can to put your eyes in the best possible hands.

The role of private enterprise in putting man into space

Has NASA, the monolithic space agency, failed in it's quest to put man out into the cosmos? Will profit coupled with man's need to explore be the driving engine which sends man into the cosmos? Think about what has moved technology forward within the American society over the past 100 years or so. Was Orville and Wilbur Wright employed by the government. Of course not. Most of their research and development for the invention of the airplane took place within a small bike shop in western Dayton, Ohio, the birth place of aviation.

Thomas Edison, who is accredited with 1,093 patents earning him the nickname "The Wizard of Menlo Park" used his own money to build the Menlo Park research labs in New Jersey. In 1889, Thomas Edison established the Edison General Electric Company. Thomas Edison is considered the most prolific inventor of our time and his inventions were created within the realm of private enterprise.

Did the seed for the invention of the personal computer germinate within a government lab? The invention of the personal computer came from an assortment of various inventions and from the tinkering of Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak in Job's garage in an area now called Silicon Valley, the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in northern California. Their tinkering led to the development of Apple Computers.

The story of Bill Gates and the development of the Microsoft family of operating systems took place within private enterprise. The Windows family of operating systems is the most widely used on earth and has been a major player in bringing information technology to the developed world.

Examples of major technological advancement within the realm of private enterprise are numerous. Most major technological advancements within society have occurred outside the purview of government intervention. Governments were intended to govern the people. The governments role is to preserve the environment of freedom and democracy so that intellectual curiosity can flourish within this environment. The governments role is also to provide funding, and should not be in the nuts and bolts operation of putting man into space. The ingenuity of man within the realm of private enterprise has resulted in most of the technological advancements we enjoy today.

The cosmos will be explored by man operating from the base of private enterprise and the technology needed to explore the cosmos will be developed within that enterprise. Why is this so? NASA is an agency driven by fear of tragedy. More mishaps will decrease the probability of sufficient government funding. This cycle of fear, mishaps, and the hope for continual funding is one that seems to have no end. But mishaps are part of the business of putting explorers into space. What can better withstand the expected mishaps. A government agency or private enterprise. If a private enterprise fails, it's competitor can step in to fill the gap and the engine of private enterprise can continue to push man into space. NASA is not a private enterprise competing within the world market place.

NASA is not what it used to be during the Apollo days. Given it's current mind set and culture, it will be difficult within this framework to send man out into the cosmos as true explorers. They have given the nuts and bolts of putting man into space to private contractors. But these NASA contractors have the same NASA mind set because they are under the dominion of NASA. There is a fear of mishaps within contractors without true competition within the market place. NASA awards contracts to the lowest bidder. Does the lowest bidder provide the highest level of safety. Once a company is awarded a contract, they remain a NASA contractor for many years and simply become an extension of NASA.

NASA has become a autocratic agency with it's arms extending outward to many companies. NASA's manned space flight program can do no more then low earth orbit. Year after year of low earth orbit does not excite the American people. Astronauts today are no longer household names. An American president here and there will give a speech saying we are going to Mars. Even President Bush's January 14, 2004 speech seems to have already been forgotten by the American public.

When we went to the moon this was the start of an exploration. A goal was set on May 25, 1961 by President John F. Kennedy, during a speech before a Joint Session of Congress, to reach the moon before the end of the decade. NASA kicked into high gear and achieved one of the greatest accomplishments in the history of mankind. We took the first step into space and then just stopped. Since then all of the manned space missions have never gone beyond low earth orbit, and the American public becomes bored easily.

To gain the American interest and support of the Apollo days, we must send true explorers out into space. NASA wants to take such small, time consuming incremental steps that by the time comes when the really exciting work begins, the American support and interest may be eroded to the point where NASA may no longer have the financial means by which to accomplish such an endeavor. Hence, the need for private enterprise to accomplish such an endeavor. If we are going to go into the cosmos, then lets do it and stop the futile activity.

A private enterprise is not a bureaucracy. If safety issues arise from qualified personnel within a bureaucracy, these issues may not resonate to the proper people within the organization. A case in point, the knowledge of a strong potential for a O-ring failure at low temperatures between the segments for the solid rocket boosters of the space shuttle, existed within the bureaucracy of NASA before the Space Shuttle Challenger explosion. More specifically, this critical information in terms of probability of O-ring compromise was expressed by engineers at Morton Thiokol, the contractor for the development and production of the solid rocket boosters. This information never percolated upward from Morton Thiokol to the proper people within the NASA organization.

In private enterprise, which is non-bureaucratic by nature, a relatively small group of people are working toward a common goal. In this situation, safety issues which arise will be known by all members of the organization. Safety issues will not get lost in a bureaucracy. NASA depends on it's contractors to deliver a high level of safety. A private enterprise depends on itself to provide a high level of safety. The structure of a private enterprise is more suited to the endeavor of sending out explorers into space. The government should award grants to the most promising companies with the understanding that the sending out of explorers into space does indeed benefit mankind.

Americans are at their best when they compete. Competition is an integral component of American society. What was the driving force that put us on the moon. It was the competition with the Russians. At the present moment in time, this type of competition does not exist. Although, it appears as if China may be a future competitor. Americans need to compete to accomplish something. It is competition which drives the advancement of technology. Why not let companies compete for government funding and let the research and development occur within these companies, and most importantly let them compete.

Space companies can have the same characteristics of any company that wants to produce a viable product. They will not be under contract from NASA and will operate as a separate private enterprise entity. A company can make money from space tourism and the same company can be involved in sending explorers out into space. Government grants can be awarded based on how strong the potential exists for space exploration. A company can be involved in space tourism, exploration, or can provide a research and development platform. This is the future of man's endeavor into space.

Man will be exploring the cosmos with private enterprise being the driving engine. If one enterprise fails, one of the competing enterprises will win out. Sure there will be some disasters and risks will be taken because that is the nature of the business. But when unfortunate disasters or mishaps do occur, the private enterprise engine will not grind to a complete halt.

Burt Rutan and his Scaled Composites team have taken the first steps toward this archetypical dream of exploring the cosmos, and they did it with a fraction of the budget that NASA uses and with a team of 130 or so people to boot. They won the Ansari X-Prize by sending a man into space and returning him safely to earth and then they repeated this within two weeks. An absolutely unbelievable accomplishment given the facilities and resources which were available to them. This could only occur within a society where freedom and democracy are regarded as a right to all individuals. The United States is such a society.

Burt Rutan has said that he has never worked a day in his life. He only plays. His passion for his work is what produces results. Burt Rutan and his team represent the core of what makes the United States the greatest country in the world. May be terrorist can get it through their thick heads that freedom does work. Most importantly, Scaled Composites has shown the world what private enterprise can accomplish. Even if Scaled Composite's endeavors never go beyond earth orbit, they have taken the first step within the proper mind set and culture, and this is what will put man into the cosmos. This mind set and culture of pure unadulterated intellectual curiosity is what really will put man into the cosmos. Not NASA's mind set of fear.

NASA has played it's important role by lighting the torch in sending man to the moon. We are now at a point in the history of mankind where that torch should be passed to private enterprise. The developer of the Ansari X-Prize I'm sure shares my thoughts. God has placed the planets and all the stars within the universe there for a reason. It is God's intention for us to move outward into the final frontier. We do this to fulfill the natural curiosity that God has given to us and in the process we better the lot of mankind. Lets go...

Animals and the melting arctic ice cap

The arguments for global warming can sound a bit vacuous when discussing temperature changes of only one degree. The impact of the melting Arctic ice cap on animals is much more tangible.

Animals and The Melting Arctic Ice Cap

There is little dispute that the Arctic ice cap is melting. Since 1979, it has definitively shrunk by 20 percent. The issue amongst most people debating global warming is whether this is because of global warming or just a natural cycle of the planet.

From a common sense point of view, it is difficult to imagine global warming is having no impact on the ice caps. The rising temperature of the planet would seem to be a common sense cause of the melting ice. Alas, common sense rarely seems to be used in debates these days.

As the cap melts, the impact on animals in the area is readily apparent. The primary problem is the reduction of habitat. Polar bears are the most obvious animals suffering from this situation. The habitat of the polar bears is the ice flow areas around the edges of the caps. As the caps melt, the flows are disappearing and pulling back to the extent that there is no ice on the shores. The extent of the melting is such that a Russian ship was able to reach the North Pole in 2005 without the use of an ice breaker. This lost habitat is pushing the polar bears to the edge of extinction. Various estimates put the total population at 20,000 and dropping.

There are, however, positive developments for some species. Recent empirical evidence shows the various seal populations of the Arctic are exhibiting growing population numbers. The exact reason is unclear, but they are appearing more and more in southern regions of the cap, which leads to the conclusion that their habitat is actually expanding.

The receding caps are also opening up extensive new habitats for fish. The melting ice is full of nutrients and fish migration to the new opening seas is astounding. Pink salmon, in particular is being seen spawning in rivers far to the north of their usual spawning grounds.

In general, the impact of the melting Arctic ice caps is a mixed situation. The polar bears certainly don’t see anything to be happy about.

Smarter ways to teach math

Schools across the country have found new ways to make math add up for students-and the country's most recent "report card" is showing the results of that hard work.

According to the U. S. Department of Education, a study called the Nation's Report Card, which provides state-by-state educational data, shows across-the-board gains in mathematics. In fact, overall fourth-grade and eighth-grade math scores rose to all-time highs, according to the study. The news comes as many Americans have focussed on ways to help their children improve their math scores in an effort to help ensure that their children have more successful academic and financial futures.

To help, many schools have used new types of technology to teach kids math. For instance, an interactive computer program called Accelerated Math, by Renaissance Learning, Inc., helps educators personalize their lessons to each student in a classroom. The technology prints personalized math practice sheets for students, corrects their work and then reports their results. Detailed reports and record keeping functions give educators a daily snapshot of each student's progress and mastery.

The process makes it easier for teachers to gauge each student's individual strengths and weaknesses and to help kids meet state and federal test requirements.

Accelerated Math content is designed to work with existing math textbooks and is aligned to state standards. Teachers can learn more about how to use Accelerated Math by working with a specialist from the company.

The specialists advise on ways to use classroom-proven routines and best practices associated with the software, as well as ways to get the most time-saving benefits from the technology. For instance, teachers using the software need to grade fewer papers and develop fewer lesson plans, freeing them up to pay more attention to their students.

It's thought such technology can help schools remain competitive in the global academic arena.

The mystery behind saturn s moon enceladus

The Cassini-Huygens exploration of Saturn, a seven-year joint venture of NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency, is getting a closer look at its current subject of attention, the small moon of Enceladus. Enceladus is one of the most innermost moons of Saturn which scientists had assumed to be largely dead. With a very bright surface it reflects nearly 100 per cent of its heat and thereby has a very cold temperature, minus 330 degrees Fahrenheit.

A surprising discovery was that Enceladus, unlike nearby similar moon Mimas, is geologically active due to the emission of ice particles propelled by water vapor into the atmosphere from its south pole. Enceladus is a small moon of approximately 300 miles radius and the existence of any geological activity for a moon that size has scientists pleasantly baffled. Discovery of geological activity on any moon has been a rare phenomenon so far. The wonderful unexplained mystery behind Enceladus is the cause of the tremendous heat source that is warming the ice. Scientists can only guess that it is due to tidal activity or radioactive mechanisms for now.

At one time it was believed that the heat was being emitted from the mid-latitude tectonic gashes that circumscribe the south polar region. This was what Cassini’s approach in July seemed to imply. However in contrast to that orbit of 286 miles, Cassini’s more recent closer approach of 109 miles confirmed that the heat was actually being emitted from what are known as the tiger stripes of Cassini. The tiger stripes of Cassini are 80 mile long fissures running parallel to each other spaced about 25 miles apart. Cassini is only 314 miles across. The hottest spots were found in the south polar region of the tiger stripes.

Cassini determined there were two types of ice on Enceladus. An older amorphous variety was due to the constant characteristic of the surface of the planet. However the ice particles vented through the tiger stripe fissure were fine crystalline particles. This ice averaged ten microns in size. It is these tiny ice particles escaping the moon’s atmosphere that are making up the composition of Saturn’s broadest ring, the E ring.

In March of 2008, Cassini is scheduled to visit Enceladus again. Perhaps then more light will be shed on the mystery behind Enceladus.

1) Enceladus Erupting – A Nasa Report – 12-7-05

2) Enceladus Plume – Jet Propulsion Laboratory – 12-6-05

3) Possible Source of E Ring – Bill Arnett – 2-17-05

4) Saturn: Moons: Enceladus – Nasa: Solar Systems Exploration – 10-6-03

5) Enceladus’s Tiger Stripes are Really Cubs – Nasa Release

Get rid of acne

Many people in the world think acne is something that is really negative. Although acne does not really affect anything else but the physical look of a person, but to some this may affect them very negatively. There are many different ways to get rid of acne, one might try different acne treatment products. Because acne affects all age group, there are products made for many different age groups to help getting rid of acne.

Some acne treatment products include Zyporex and ClearPores. Usually these products should not give any side effects but in some cases they do give some side effects. Usually products like this usually get rid of your acne within a week and sometimes in a few days. Some of these products are very costly but sometimes they are very cheap, also sometimes they are even given out to you for free just so you can try it. Most of these products are simple to use and may also help you reduce any more acne appearing on your skin.

The second type of acne treatment is using natural remedies. This is getting more and more popular over the past few years and many are using it. This is because of two main reasons; it is cheaper and it does not give side effects. Some think that if they do not give side effects it will take longer for them to get rid of the acne. That is not true because natural acne treatment products, such as Green tea extract and Licorice Root Extract, still get rid of the acne before a week but most of the time within a few days. They give no side effect and these natural remedies have been used for sometimes thousands of years and most of these remedies are being used to cure other medical things.

The third popular way to get rid of acne is using home made acne treatments. This treatment is quite popular because one can use different remedies until they locate one they like and that functions best for them. So this way they can change around remedies a lot and usually these remedies are natural so it has the benefits of natural acne treatments.

Stress and the immune system

Stress and the immune system play a vital role in your life and overall health. Day-to-day stressful events affect how your body responds to fighting illnesses. Stressful events that occur on a short-term basis can change the way your immune systems responds temporarily. Responses from the immune system to short-term stresses can actually be helpful in some cases, redistributing cells in a positive manner to help your body adapt as a quick-fix. Moderately stressful events, however, can have a damaging impact on your body’s immune system, while traumatic and chronic stress can compromise your immune system’s ability to perform.

Individuals react differently to stressful situations: some experience more physiological changes when under pressure than others. Stress and the immune system can bring about conditions in which your body’s cells can actually be suppressed and rendered unable to engage in their useful functions of protecting your body against infections.

From one stressful presentation you have to make at work, to the everyday traffic congestion that can turn into road rage, stress and the immune system play a significant role in your overall health. If your body’s immune system isn’t functioning properly, all sorts of germs, bacteria, viruses, and diseases have the opportunity to pass into your system to cause you more grief.

Diabetes, ulcers, heart attacks, and asthma are just a few conditions made worse by the effects of stress and the immune system. Increases in chemicals produced by your body that help with nerve conduction cause changes in your heart rate and blood vessels, compromising the immune system's response when you enter situations that cause you stress.

To help lower the chances that stress and the immune system will negatively affect your daily life, you can take steps such as eating right, getting regular exercise and getting plenty of rest. Your body needs you to take care of it so that it can help take care of you. Eating healthy and nutritious foods is a good place to start. Consumption of foods such as orange vegetables (carrots, pumpkin, squash, and sweet potatoes) help with the Vitamin A your skin needs to help prevent bacteria from getting into your body. Lean, low-fat beef and certain types of mushrooms containing zinc promote the building of white blood cells to help fight infection. Tea, fortified cereals and yogurt also aid in keeping your immune system functioning well.

You can also try to keep your stress levels at a minimum -- easier said than done for a lot of people. Practice deep-breathing exercises and other anxiety-calming techniques to try to reduce your stress levels. Stress and the immune system can negatively impact your body’s health and well being when stress gets out of hand and your immune system isn't up to its job. Stress is a physiological process, but you can take psychological steps to rein it in and get control over the situation before it gets out of control and causes an illness to befall you.

Discover your genius within

The functions of the right and left brain are only a small portion of the potential that comprises THE MIND. The mind and the brain are two very different things. You can think of the brain as the hard drive of the computer and the mind as the software. Your mind is the intelligence that is in every cell, every system and every organ of your body. It is that intangible, incredible, and awe-inspiring part of you that thinks, remembers, sorts information, makes judgments, forms habits, discerns, distinguishes, communicates and otherwise makes you who you are. It is the genius within.

Your mind takes in all information through the five senses (sight, touch, hearing, smell and taste). You can liken the five senses to the keyboard on the computer. You receive input through your senses, your “data entry” system. Your brain then stores, categorizes and utilizes this information. A genius knows how to access that information and then apply it in discovering the solutions to any problems that may arise. It is therefore essential that you discover your own individual style for gathering and communicating information.

Some of us process sensory input more effectively through visual means, others through auditory stimuli, and others through a kinesthetic (a touch or feel) approach. Here’s a very simple way to begin to contemplate which way your genius accesses information. Imagine for a moment that you are buying a new item of clothing for an important meeting. Would you be most influenced to buy primarily for a) the color and style of the outfit; b) the benefits the salesperson tells you about the clothing; c) the texture and feel of the fabric. If you chose “A”, your brain receives information primarily through visual means. If you chose “B”, you perceive information primarily through auditory means. If “C”, you most likely access information through kinesthetic means.

Everyone learns and communicates in all three of these modes. However, most people have developed a natural preference, and tend to use one method more frequently. As an awakening genius, it’s your goal to become aware of your preference and then strive to strike a balance between all three modes: visual, auditory, and kinesthetic.

Are you willing to stretch your abilities by consciously choosing to use your other senses more? Can you imagine the benefits of opening your mind to receive ALL the input from the world around you? Doing so will give you an awareness of an exciting world that’s been there all along, but which you may have been missing.

It is natural for you to use what is comfortable, but the awakened genius is willing to grow. Like the turtle, you won't go far without coming out of your shell. You will be pleasantly surprised as you practice using and developing your other senses. You will notice how your memory improves and how easy it becomes for you to make choices. You will discover a whole new world of communication. Once you learn to create a balance in perception, you will be well on your way to thinking holographically – and using the full power of your genius!

Special and general principle of relativity

By Albert Einstein

The basal principle, which was the pivot of all our previous considerations, was the special principle of relativity, i. e. the principle of the physical relativity of all uniform motion. Let as once more analyze its meaning carefully.

It was at all times clear that, from the point of view of the idea it conveys to us, every motion must be considered only as a relative motion. Returning to the illustration we have frequently used of the embankment and the railway carriage, we can express the fact of the motion here taking place in the following two forms, both of which are equally justifiable :

(a) The carriage is in motion relative to the embankment,

(b) The embankment is in motion relative to the carriage.

In (a) the embankment, in (b) the carriage, serves as the body of reference in our statement of the motion taking place. If it is simply a question of detecting or of describing the motion involved, it is in principle immaterial to what reference-body we refer the motion. As already mentioned, this is self-evident, but it must not be confused with the much more comprehensive statement called "the principle of relativity," which we have taken as the basis of our investigations.

The principle we have made use of not only maintains that we may equally well choose the carriage or the embankment as our reference-body for the description of any event (for this, too, is self-evident). Our principle rather asserts what follows : If we formulate the general laws of nature as they are obtained from experience, by making use of

(a) the embankment as reference-body,

(b) the railway carriage as reference-body,

then these general laws of nature (e. g. the laws of mechanics or the law of the propagation of light in vacuo) have exactly the same form in both cases. This can also be expressed as follows : For the physical description of natural processes, neither of the reference bodies K, K1 is unique (lit. " specially marked out ") as compared with the other. Unlike the first, this latter statement need not of necessity hold a priori; it is not contained in the conceptions of " motion" and " reference-body " and derivable from them; only experience can decide as to its correctness or incorrectness.

Up to the present, however, we have by no means maintained the equivalence of all bodies of reference K in connection with the formulation of natural laws. Our course was more on the following lines. In the first place, we started out from the assumption that there exists a reference-body K, whose condition of motion is such that the Galilean law holds with respect to it : A particle left to itself and sufficiently far removed from all other particles moves uniformly in a straight line. With reference to K (Galilean reference-body) the laws of nature were to be as simple as possible. But in addition to K, all bodies of reference K1 should be given preference in this sense, and they should be exactly equivalent to K for the formulation of natural laws, provided that they are in a state of uniform rectilinear and non-rotary motion with respect to K ; all these bodies of reference are to be regarded as Galilean reference-bodies. The validity of the principle of relativity was assumed only for these reference-bodies, but not for others (e. g. those possessing motion of a different kind). In this sense we speak of the special principle of relativity, or special theory of relativity.

In contrast to this we wish to understand by the "general principle of relativity" the following statement : All bodies of reference K, K1, etc., are equivalent for the description of natural phenomena (formulation of the general laws of nature), whatever may be their state of motion. But before proceeding farther, it ought to be pointed out that this formulation must be replaced later by a more abstract one, for reasons which will become evident at a later stage.

Since the introduction of the special principle of relativity has been justified, every intellect which strives after generalization must feel the temptation to venture the step towards the general principle of relativity. But a simple and apparently quite reliable consideration seems to suggest that, for the present at any rate, there is little hope of success in such an attempt; Let us imagine ourselves transferred to our old friend the railway carriage, which is traveling at a uniform rate. As long as it is moving uniformly, the occupant of the carriage is not sensible of its motion, and it is for this reason that he can without reluctance interpret the facts of the case as indicating that the carriage is at rest, but the embankment in motion. Moreover, according to the special principle of relativity, this interpretation is quite justified also from a physical point of view.

If the motion of the carriage is now changed into a non-uniform motion, as for instance by a powerful application of the brakes, then the occupant of the carriage experiences a correspondingly powerful jerk forwards. The retarded motion is manifested in the mechanical behavior of bodies relative to the person in the railway carriage. The mechanical behavior is different from that of the case previously considered, and for this reason it would appear to be impossible that the same mechanical laws hold relatively to the non-uniformly moving carriage, as hold with reference to the carriage when at rest or in uniform motion. At all events it is clear that the Galilean law does not hold with respect to the non-uniformly moving carriage. Because of this, we feel compelled at the present juncture to grant a kind of absolute physical reality to non-uniform motion, in opposition to the general principle of relativity. But in what follows we shall soon see that this conclusion cannot be maintained.

To read more, go to http://www. EffortlessPhysicsLessons. com/relativity/

Stephan Bourget, physicist

Effortless Physics Lessons

http://www. EffortlessPhysicsLessons. com

South africa should license research lab on genetically modified sorghum

Prof. Florence Wambugu, a renowned agricultural biotechnologist and the founder of Africa Harvest Biotech Foundation International, is currently entangled in a row with the South African government over her plan to set up a multimillion dollar research laboratory and greenhouses to develop genetically modified sorghum.

Prof. Wambugu has received a huge grant - US$415 million - from Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, to develop genetically modified crops, which have proved essential in alleviating food insecurity. Her choice of South Africa stems from the fact that it’s the only African country with Biosafety laws.

South Africa’s early enactment of biosafety laws has made it the preferred destination for biotechnology investors. To now hear a country that’s gained international reputation for its friendly policies towards biotechnology is attempting to block an African scientist from advancing a biotechnology cause is appalling.

In justifying its decision to suspend Prof. Wambugu’s project, South Africa’s agricultural regulatory agencies have claimed that the genetically modified sorghum can contaminate varieties native to Africa. This looks like a pedestrian argument and it’s tantamount to putting the cart before the horse.

For the record, Prof. Wambugu has not yet shipped genetically modified sorghum to Africa. All what she wants to do is to set up a laboratory to conduct research on the same. All what Prof. Wambugu currently wants is to build the infrastructure for genetically modified sorghum research. Such can in no way interfere with the so called indigenous African sorghum varieties.

Prof. Wambugu will, at one stage, conduct field trials of her genetically modified sorghum. Then is the right time for the South African government to be worried about “contamination.”

It should not be lost on anyone that South Africa has well-entrenched genetically modified organisms (Gmos) regulatory laws. So, it’s unlikely that the new genetically modified sorghum will be developed outside such laws.

Genetically modified crops are not alien to South Africa. It’s not the first time a new genetically modified crop is being introduced into South Africa. The laws that governed the introduction of genetically modified corn and cotton, currently being commercially grown in South Africa must be applied to Prof. Wambugu’s genetically modified sorghum.

The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, by investing in agricultural biotechnology research, is sending a stark message to African countries that it’s committed to finding a permanent solution to Africa’s chronic food problems. The best way to reciprocate this generous gesture is for African governments to allow scientists like Prof. Wambugu to do their work unimpeded.

Tips for coping with lyme disease

If you’ve ever gotten Lyme disease from an infected tick bite, then you know how uncomfortable the illness can be. Some people don’t realize just how frustrating and painful the disease can be for those suffering from it. Joint and muscle pain that lasts for days or weeks at a time, countless trips to the doctor’s office, misdiagnoses and failed treatments all can make for an extremely stressful period of time.

Coping with Lyme disease can be particularly difficult because oftentimes the illness is misdiagnosed, which leads to treatment plans that don’t work and ongoing sickness and pain from the disease. Because there is no conclusive test to determine whether or not a Lyme disease infection is present, misdiagnosis is common. This can be especially frustrating for people that are told that their symptoms are “all in their head” or that the symptoms are purely psychiatric and that they need anti-depressants. There are more than 100 different symptoms of Lyme disease, which can make it extremely difficult for doctors to narrow down the symptoms into one illness. The disease is also commonly misdiagnosed as another type of ailment, such as arthritis, and so the patient does not receive proper treatment.

If you are coping with Lyme disease in your life, following are some tips that may help you as you fight the disease:

Understand Lyme disease – Get familiar with the disease. Educate yourself on the basics of Lyme disease, such as its causes, symptoms, how it is diagnosed and prognosis. Lyme disease develops from the bacteria Borrelia, which is most commonly transmitted via the bite of a deer tick. Once the bacteria invade your body, you’ll most likely begin to experience symptoms within a matter of weeks. Symptoms include a reddish bulls-eye shaped rash, fever, fatigue, and arthritis-like muscle and joint pain. Coping with Lyme disease and its symptoms certainly is not fun, but by examining your symptoms and medical history, your doctor will hopefully be able to make a proper diagnosis. Once a diagnosis is made, treatment can begin. This will most often include either oral or IV antibiotics to rid your body of the bacteria. Understanding the illness and how it affects your body is an important part of coping with Lyme disease.

Explore your treatment options – Talk to your doctor about different treatment that may be available. Antibiotics are most commonly used to fight the disease. However, there are alternative therapies available, although they have not been studied thoroughly during clinical trials and therefore may not be as effective.

Be patient – This is the hardest thing to do when you’re feeling awful, but it’s very important when coping with Lyme disease. You need to give your body time to heal and respond to treatments, and worrying or stressing over how long it’s taking or dwelling on how bad you feel will NOT help you recover any faster. In fact, it’s more likely to slow down your recovery. So just hang in there -- you will get better in time.

Malaria the silent killer a simple guide for travellers

What is malaria?

Malaria is a very serious disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Four species of the parasites produce the disease which is transmitted by the female anopheline mosquito. The most dangerous is P. falciparum. If untreated it can lead to fatal cerebral malaria.

What are the symptoms?

Flu-like symptoms: headaches, muscle aches, confusion, dizziness, vomiting (lasting several hours), sweating, tiredness, but most of all, fever. Anemia and jaundice can occur.

Symptoms generally occur from 7 days to a few weeks after being bitten, however may not occur for up to one year.

How is it prevented?

The following drugs should be taken before embarking on a trip to a country where malaria is prevalent:

Atovaquone/proguanil

Doxycycline

Mefloquine

Primaquine (in special circumstances)

Visit your doctor or health clinic several weeks before travelling as these drugs need to be administered in advance.

A good insect repellent should also be applied to exposed skin whilst abroad; preferably one containing DEET (N. N - diethyl meta-toulamide) which is the only ingredient guaranteed to work and is long lasting. There are other repellents on the market for those not wishing to use DEET, but they need to be applied frequently.

What countries are at risk?

Afghanistan. Angola, Brazil, Benin, Burkino, Cambodia, Camaroon, Central African Republic, Chad, China, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial New Guinea, Eritrea, Faso Burindi, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Bissau, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Principe, Rwanda, Sao Tome, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Zaire, Zambia.

BE SAFE!

8th grade science fair project ideas

There are many different 8th grade science fair project ideas that you could use for your next assignment, these are used depending on the type of project that you wish to create and they are basically categorized in the sciences of physics, chemistry, biology, computer science, social sciences and environmental sciences. Each of your projects should have a guideline of how to use it and how to prove its efficiency. You should know that many interesting actual projects have developed from good ideas for science projects.

The best part about a science fair project is that you may have your very own group of science fair topic ideas and then you just need to select one and start working on a project that will allow you to compete in this activity that have formed part of education for a long time. A very good method for acquiring 8th grade science fair project ideas will be described in the next few lines if you're interested in understanding the basics of a science fair project.

The first thing that you should do is to pick one topic of the classification which was stated above, and once you have accomplished that you need to select one of the different subtopics that can be applied to the general topic that you just selected. It is very interesting to ask yourself a question about how things work, and if there are some questions that you cannot answer then those are very good ideas for science projects.

Another good technique for selecting science fair topic ideas will be to read the newspaper and watch television, see what interesting aspects of life are developing nowadays and try to explain them on a science fair project. That way you will get outstanding 8th grade science fair project ideas and with them you will be capable of winning a wonderful prize. And you will have an excellent group of ideas for science projects.

Keep in mind that for selecting the best 8th grade science fair project ideas your selection must be not only a great question, but a successful project also implies that you would be giving the answer by performing an experiment. So it is very important that you prepare yourself with all of the needed materials once you have reduced to one selection from your complete group of good ideas for science projects.

Try to make the project by yourself, ask as little assistance as you can and you will feel that your 8th grade science fair project ideas were incredible and that you accomplished everything by yourself; it will leave you with a sense of accomplishment that cannot be equaled if you win with the help of others.

Gas is important

In todays modern economy, Gas & Oil, have become such important aspects, that it would be safe to say that we rely on them. A few examples are gas in our cars, for our furnaces, and the production of plastics. How much do you really know about Gas though?

A gas is one of the different phases of matter. Similar to liquids and plasmas, gases are fluids. This means that they have the ability to flow and that they will not usually return to their prior stage after they have been deformed. This doesn't mean that they don't have viscosity. A property of a gas that is different from that of a liquid is that; a gas does not occupy a fixed space or volume, but will instead expand to fill whatever container it is in, this is opposite of a liquid that will remain the same.

After Plasma, gas has the second highest energy per molecule. Due to this extreme amount of kinetic energy, gas atoms and molecules of gas will usually bounce off any container they are placed in, and even off of eachother. This bouncing will occur with more power as the kinetic energy of the gas is increased. Many people, incorrectly believe that when these molecules collide provide the main basis in explaining gas pressure. This is not true because the random velocities of the gas are enough to define the gas pressure. Not to leave these collisions in the dark, as they are very important in establishing the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of the gas.

It's interesting how we use the word "gas" every single day, and all that we relate it to is the rising gas prices, or something that we get when we eat too many beans. There is alot more to gas then that, and is an important part of our everyday lives.

Clean sources of energy to avoid contributing to global warming

Many people wonder what they can do to help dampen the effects of the climate crisis. One method of doing so incorporates the usage of ‘clean' energy; that is, energy that does not contribute to the levels of greenhouse gas present in our atmosphere. There are several sources of clean energy, and although it may cost more, the benefit on the planet's ecosystem is well worth the extra money. Commonly known as ‘green power', the Environmental Protection Agency has formed a partnership to help encourage the usage of these alternative sources of energy.

Wind energy is one option when it comes to renewable power. Large spinning turbines harvest the movement of the air, and the energy is transferred into an electricity generator for usage in any application. While it's not available everywhere, wind energy represents one of the fastest sectors of growth when it comes to alternative power sources, and it is consequently one of the most widely used alternative sources. As a matter of fact, since the year 2000, the number of wind turbines present in the United States has more than doubled!

Solar power is another significant source of renewable energy. Solar cells known as photovoltaics are placed on sun-catching areas such as the roof of a house. These cells turn light energy into electricity, and enough electric panels can provide power for an entire home, leaving you independent of the energy companies altogether.

Geothermal energy represents a source of energy that is not commonly discussed. Heat from underneath the earth's surface is harvested as steam, which helps to spin a turbine much in the way of wind power. The spinning motion is sent to an electricity generator, and the power can be used in any modern application.

Low impact hydropower represents another significant source of renewable energy. Incorporating the use of a turbine, hydropower is created in streams and rivers which produce enough of a force to properly spin the turbines. Many aspects of hydropower need to be approved to ensure that the turbines do not significantly effect wildlife that may be living in the area where the energy is being harvested. Most hydropower sources do not dam a river up; they operate with the river in free-flow as to minimize the effect on the environment.

While these sources may not be easy to come by, your conscience can be unburdened regarding the climate crisis by switching to one of these environmentally friendly sources of energy. Do your part in helping to change our planet for the better!

Scotland s most infamous female she could ruin your holiday

The summer days in Scotland are long and mild with nights that stay bright until 10pm. The scenery is beautiful, the weather is at its best and the tranquillity makes an ideal choice for a relaxing vacation, or so you would think.

Your holiday has just started and at the end of the first day the prospect of an aperitif in the garden or by the lakeside is very appealing. It has just passed 5pm. The first sip is rewarding and satisfying as you sit back to breath in the clean, fresh air and absorb the breath-taking scenery. Gradually you feel uncomfortable and find that you have the urge to scratch your head and face. Then you are aware of something like dust particles floating around the upper part of your body. Dismissing them with a wave, thinking they are far too small to contemplate, you carry on with your aperitif and conversation. But then you find yourself itching so much, eventually you can’t take it any more and head inside wondering how these minute creatures could have ruined your evening, you can hardly see them!

Next day you frighten yourself as you look in the bathroom mirror, still itching, and see an image of someone who appears to be suffering from measles! But it’s not measles, it’s the result of the bite of the ferocious Culicoides impunctatus, the infamous female Highland Midge ! She will come out every evening like a vampire, to fulfil her need to supply her unborn eggs with blood. She breeds in damp vegetative areas and is attracted to you by the carbon dioxide you breath out. The only way she will not detect you and attack for your blood is if you stop breathing!

However, there is an alternative…that works!

The basics of a remanufactured engine

Even if the commercials seen on TV might make you believe that an engine can run forever, that is not really true, any engine wears out eventually. The engine under the bonnet of your car is composed of many moving parts that are projected to work together and harness the internal combustion power under those brutal conditions. When the engine fails, a good idea would be to think about a remanufactured replacement engine.

A remanufactured engine can be a way to keep driving your trusty car even after an engine failure. Before making a decision whatever you want a remanufactured engine installed or not you must make sure the rest of the vehicle is in good condition, as well as other systems on the vehicle. If you replace the engine on a car that has a damaged fuel of cooling system then that would be a very time consuming and expensive mistake if not correct. If your vehicle is in good shape, or you have recently made an investment in major components on the car and the engine died, then a remanufactured replacement engine is the option you need to choose.

Rebuilt engine is a very relative term; slip-shod methods of rebuilding the engine can not be trusted when it comes to rebuilding the engine. If you want your engine to be properly rebuilt you need to make sure the job is done by professional machinists. Not everybody has the capital to purchases the proper machines and equipment required to correctly remanufacture an engine and the skills that are required are not easily learned. If the engine is correctly rebuilt it might even be better than the original one.

The engine removal and replacement is not an easy job and a proper facility and experience are required. If the engine comes with a warranty then you'll need to make sure that proper installation and break-in procedures are followed to validate and stay in compliance with the warranty. Cleaning and checking the reused components is a must. The oiling system of the engine must be primed properly before staring. There are many variables that if not checked and done properly might spell the end of the engine before it even gets a chance to start, such an example is a loss in oil pressure.

If you choose to install a remanufactured engine in an otherwise good vehicle, it will provide years of uninterrupted service at a very low cost compared to purchasing a new vehicle.

[ 1 2 3 4 5 6 ]