Buy to cover orders with stock trading

If you have always wanted to know more about this topic, then get ready because we have all the information you can handle.

Within the buy to cover orders, there are four options in which to place against your stock purchases. When you buy to cover on a stock order, you are in agreement that you will buy the stock at the latest share price; however, because there is a lag between the time you approve to buy the stock and the actual transaction, a price difference may occur. You could end up paying more than anticipated for each stock, or a considerably lesser amount per stock, which is what you are eager for. You can also buy to cover limit orders, which guarantees that you pay no more than the set limit price. However, if stock prices hold above the limit buy price, this type of buy to cover order will never be executed.

This type of transaction is mainly used by investors who want to get into a certain market. You may also want to buy, to cover stop orders in which case the stop orders become simple stock orders as soon as the value is at or above the stop price. This type of order is used to get you out of an unfavourable stock so that you will not have lost any profits. And, finally, you may want to buy to cover a limit order that converts to limit order only when the share value is at or above the stop price. You have to know each of the buy to cover orders so that you can make educated decisions about your investments.

From one decision period to the next in the stock market game, the markets can move up and down non-stop, which means that prices of shares are at a frequent changing point. You may think about purchasing a certain stock that is at $5 per share, and in the next day, the value per share has risen to $15 per share.

This is where the betting of the stock market comes into play. By erudition the advantages of the buy to cover orders, you can multiply your odds of earning money on the stock exchange rather than of losing money. The most obvious benefit to the entire buy to cover options is that they are in place to make you money, when executed properly. For example, you would not perform a stop loss on a stock that has steadily increased over a 5 month period. If you did this, you would force yourself to squander money to buy the stock in order to cover your mistake. You choose to buy 175 shares of stocks from Albertson's, a grocery store chain, at $75 each, for an entire investment of $13,125. Over a four month period, you observe that the stocks have gained in profit, and you would like to do something to guarantee that you keep this earned profit. Not knowing better, you put a stop loss of $45 per stock without consulting with your stockbroker. From that position forward, if your stock decreases to $45 per stock, you have to sell it, and any earlier earned profit is null and void. The only chance you have in getting back that profit is if you are swift enough in the non-stop stock market game, to buy the Albertson's stocks before somebody else does. However, even if you are able to do this, you have still suffered a great loss monetarily.

Educate yourself in the stock market game.

As with any game, there is some form of jeopardy involved, however, when you play the stock market game, you can avert a great deal of distress by simply taking the time to acquire knowledge about all types of orders you are able to place on your stocks. If you require help educating yourself about the types of orders to place on your stocks, you should consult your stockbroker in order to take professional advice before taking matters into your own hands, inevitably forcing yourself to lose some of your invested money's profit. Thus, it is absurd to invest your hard earned money into any program before you know all the data necessary to make a well-informed, educated judgment.

If you could take the main ideas from this article and put them into a list, you would a great overview of what we have learned.

Profit every time you see signs of strength and signs of weakness in the markets

Copyright 2006 Peter Woodhead

There are two questions that are continually asked:

1. What do I do when I see signs of weakness?

2. What do I do when I see signs of strength?

Before these two critical questions can be answered, ALWAYS remember that true weakness comes in on an UP bar and ….

True strength ALWAYS comes in on DOWN bars.

On true signs of weakness you should:

a) initiate new short position(s)

b) reverse old long positions to short

c) close out any long positions

On signs of strength you should:

a) initiate new long position(s)

b) reverse old short positions to long

c) close out any short positions

Why is your reaction to a strong sign of strength (or weakness) so important?

Because whenever a true sign of strength (or weakness) is seen the market makers and professionals will notice it straight away and act accordingly.

So what is meant by a “true” sign of strength (or weakness)?

You should observe a strong volume bar straight away to support your position.

If no such bar is present, that indicates that the professional money is not interested in the move because they know the market is still weak (or strong) and you can expect a move in the opposite direction to what you may have thought. Probably resulting in another period of accumulation or distribution before the next indicator.

The Golden Rule:

Understand where the professional money is and follow them. If they aren’t interested, neither should you be. If they are interested (shown by buying/selling), then back your judgement.

Most traders don’t have a clue as to what’s going on in the markets. But you will, if you take the time to understand how the professionals operate and what causes the moves in the market. You will get to time your entry and exit points to near perfection.

For example: After a sharp move up you should expect a down move. After a strong bar up, sellers are tempted by the new high prices. This can be seen by any lack of follow through and the appearance of a strong down bar. Those who matter (the professionals) would see this, enter their positions, and force the market down.

Conversely, after a sharp down move, you can expect weakness. Look for a classic “test” Look for the professionals entering the market and go with them.

It is essential that you really understand how the markets work before you start trading. So many people ignore this fact. That's why they never really "get it."

The master at how to trade like the professionals is a guy called Tom Williams. His "The Undeclared Secrets That Drive the Stock Market" is a classic. And is required reading.

Which uranium companies are leveraged for increased nuclear energy demand

Summary: Sprott Asset Management uranium expert Kevin Bambrough talked with us about the “second leg” of the current uranium bull market. Bambrough names his favorite uranium companies, where he believes there is still room for growth.

StockInterview: How does the major nuclear energy build up you envision impact uranium mining?

Kevin Bambrough:

I think, with the passage of time, all types of mining will again be done again in the United States. They’re going to need the supply. There is no alternative. If you look at Energy Metals Corporation (TSX: EMC), part of their plan is to start with some ISL operations, some of which will come at a facility that’s already fully permitted. Then eventually, they’re going to try to move into places like New Mexico, where I think with the passage of time, common sense will prevail and people will become more pro-mining for uranium.

StockInterview: We now have about ten times the number of uranium companies, some purporting to be a “uranium company,” than when we first started covering this sector. How is this sector going to play out?

Kevin Bambrough:

It’s been very difficult to try and follow what everyone is doing in this space. Right now, the uranium story is looking so good. It’s still relatively early that anyone seems to be able to raise some money, tell a story and perform well. It’s unbelievable how the sector has performed this year. With the passage of time, the guys with the real resources, who can also develop them and produce, are going to do well. The other guys are going to have to keep coming back to the market, raising capital, raising capital and diluting their shareholders in order to try to drill and find something. Of course, there is going to be the odd one here and there that actually strikes something big. It’ll give people hope but, that’s not the way we want to invest.

StockInterview: Have the uranium stocks gotten out of control? Are we looking like another train crash like the internet stocks of a few years ago?

Kevin Bambrough:

The majority of stocks in the uranium space, we will not own. We only own a really select few, probably just over a dozen. We have some explorers, we have some producers and we have some, what we believe to be emerging producers and we’re sticking with that mix.

StockInterview: So which companies do you like?

Kevin Bambrough:

Obviously, there is a lot of mud slinging that goes on in all sectors of the mining business. You talk to different people, and they say, “Oh this is going to be higher cost, that is going to be higher cost, and our properties are better than their properties.” From where I sit, Energy Metals (TSX: EMC) was one of the companies to get in there early, and pick up a lot of known resources and databases. I think they’ve done a great job of doing exactly what they said they were going to do. We started funding them in the early days. Those are the (types of ) companies I want to stick with.

StockInterview: What do you like about Energy Metals?

Kevin Bambrough:

I’m happy to say that we’re a very large shareholder of Energy Metals, and I continue to love the story. The most recent presentation they gave shows what the company will look like after they fully complete the Standard Uranium and Quincy Energy mergers. The combined entity in their presentation shows to have about 236 million pounds of uranium resources, I believe, and a market cap of around C$360 million with $60 million in cash. We’re still a shareholder of Paladin (TSX: PDN). I think we’re up about 40 or 50 times on the first shares we bought. If you compare the two, you’ve got a market cap of close to C$2 billion on Paladin with around 180 million pounds. If you look, you’ll notice the real big move in market cap occurred, when Paladin started to get close to production and they signed contracts. Now Energy Metals has about one-fifth of the market cap and a fully permitted ISL facility down in Texas. They’re at the point where they’re going to sign the contracts and move forward into production. I think people are going to wake up and start giving them more credit. I think that positive permitting developments will continue to occur in places like New Mexico. Obviously, the friendly environment in Wyoming for bringing on production will make Energy Metals perform very well going forward. It’s going to be fantastic for shareholders if it can duplicate the move that Paladin has over the last year or so.

StockInterview: You said earlier “common sense would prevail” in New Mexico. How does that impact Energy Metals?

Kevin Bambrough:

New Mexico is more in the back burner for now, but I think the stock (Energy Metals) will continue to perform well as the regulatory environment continues to improve in the area. I should touch on Strathmore Minerals (TSX: STM). We’ve been please to see they’ve been bringing out their (National Instrument) 43-101’s on a couple of their (New Mexico) properties and show an increase in reserves. I believe they’re doing some work right now on their Dieter Lake project up in Quebec that could be interesting. They’ve got some good resources and reserves. I think at some point, someone is going to want to cut some deals with them, or they’re going to just keep chugging along and bringing things forward.

StockInterview: You were excited about Tournigan (TSX: TVC) the last time we talked. How is that one turning out?

Kevin Bambrough:

Tournigan is really developing into a great story. Originally, when we first got into this, it looked reasonably valued and interesting on its gold prospects. When they picked up deposits in Slovakia, we got in deeper. I think the story just keeps getting better as we look more into what they actually may have in these properties. They’ve also brought on a new hire, who was the head of the Slovakia uranium program years ago. He’s joined the team and he’s basically said that the Jahodna district) is probably not just a 3km strike length but probably more of a 7km potential. The current resource estimates are only based on 500 meters of the zone. They’re going to start stepping out and drilling it. We’re hoping it could get much bigger. It’s open at depth as well. There is also reasonable chance this could become a large uranium district. They’ve found out there were a lot of other targets in the area, in the past. They are going to try to work these targets as well. Slovakia is a major past producing country. A lot of its power currently comes from nuclear. They have two other properties in Slovakia with resources. They’re going to drill and are hopefully going to show better grades and larger resources, with time. Of course, you’re always hopeful, no guarantees, but our experience is that in the uranium business: As you go and drill old properties, redo old drill holes with larger cores, you get better recoveries and can show higher grades. That seems to have been the case for both Tournigan and Western Prospector (TSX: WNP). I should also mention that on the Jahodna property, it’s interesting that, not only did the uranium grade jump but also the molybdenum grade jumped up substantially to where this is now some very valuable rock.

StockInterview: Any final recommendations?

Kevin Bambrough:

SXR Uranium One (TSX: SXR), I think it’s a great story. There’s no doubt that the uranium is there, but some people debate about how difficult the mining is going to be and what the cost will ultimately be. But they’ve got a good gold credit in there to help bring down the overall cost. Again, we believe the uranium price is going to be much higher than most people believe for a lot longer. We love investing in companies with huge resources and plenty of leverage to both uranium and gold.

StockInterview: Do you still see some of your uranium holdings, certain ones as cheap, still in play, and to be looked at?

Kevin Bambrough:

Most definitely, and we’ll be helping to finance some all the way to production.

Successful investors have learned to talk their walk

Today, English is the most widely spoken and written language on the planet. English was first spoken in Britain by Germanic tribes in the Fifth Century AD. At that time it was known as the Old English (Anglo-Saxon) period. During the Middle English period (1150-1500 AD), many Old English word endings were replaced by prepositions like by, with, and from. We are currently in the Modern English period which started in the Sixteenth Century.

The number of words in English has grown from 50,000 to 60,000 words in Old English to about a million today; the largest of all languages by far. An average educated person knows about 20,000 words and uses only about 2,000 words in a week. Despite its widespread use, there are only about 350 million people who use it as their mother tongue.

It is the official language of the Olympics. More than half of the world's technical and scientific periodicals as well three quarters of the world's mail, and its telexes and cables are in English. About 80% of the information stored in the world's computers (like this text) are also in English. English is transmitted to more than 100 million people everyday by 5 of the largest broadcasting companies (CBS, NBC, ABC, BBC, CBC). It seems like English will remain the most widely used language for some time.

The field of finance was pioneered by the United States of America as an extension of mercantilism. This was at a time when study of anything but economics was considered unworthy as compared to hard sciences like math, chemistry and physic and kissing up in the king’s court was highly regarded. The first business schools were established in the United States for this reason and still maintain their dominance. Finance has many words such as “put” and “call” for which there are no translations in other languages.

It is critical that you develop your financial vocabulary. My understanding of the financial vocabulary is vast compared to the average person because of my Ph. D. that I hold in the field as well as my investing experience as a futures and options trader and long term stock investor.

Many years of study at the doctoral level combined with direct practice in investments has allowed me to develop a vast financial vocabulary. This allows me to capture the essence of investment readings and conversations that the average person does not understand. Many investors fail not for lack of intelligence (I am of average intelligence) but lack of comprehension of what makes the stock market tick. This is due, in great part, to a lack of vocabulary that the common man on the street has not developed. Take the time to develop your financial vocabulary and you will excel over time as an investor!

Penny stocks - turn your pennies into dollars

Penny Stocks - Turn Your Pennies Into Dollars

We've all heard about the investor how bragged about his 100% or 1000% return on a stock or about the guy who made it rich by investing in small caps, undiscovered stocks that made it big. In theory, it seems to be too easy. Invest in a couple of penny stocks, then sell them when they move up. Unfortunately, it is too easy. Too easy to lose money unless you know what to look for.

First, lets have a look at what types of companies trade on the OTC BB or Pink Sheets.

Stocks that no longer trade over $1 on the Nasdaq

These include companies that fell from grace (Enron). While it is possible that they may see better days in the future, the odds are stacked against them. Its usually best to avoid trading these stocks. If you feel that the temptation is too much, wait until the stock begins to rebound. If you try catching a falling knife, you will get hurt.

New Start Ups

Every year there are hundreds if not thousands of companies who decided to go public. Whether they need the money to expand their business, or are looking to cash out their equity, its a natural progression for a company with a compelling story, and a great track record to go public. While many of these companies will file for an IPO, many others will start off trading on the OTC BB as a penny stock

Second, lets look at some tips to help the penny stock trader avoid making costly mistakes.

Due Diligence

Stocks listed on the Pink Sheets don't have to file annual or quarterly statements. This makes starting your due diligence difficult. Often, the information is sketchy at best, and typically, its biased. You should expect a shareholder to say good things about the company. If the company didn't have potential, they wouldn't be holding it. Or, they might be hoping to unload their shares and hope to talk you into buying.

Stocks listed on the OTC BB file annual and quarterly statements. This provides some measure of financial success. You'll find most penny stocks lose money, whether through managerial incompetence, or research and development. The key is to identify the companies whose management has a record of consistently making money, or at the very least, delivering on their business plan, and decreasing expenses.

Penny Stock Newsletters

Being a writer for The Leading Source (http://www.1source4stocks. com) puts me in a biased position when speaking to penny stock newsletters. Here's what I can tell you: be careful! Check the disclaimer for the amount the newsletter is being paid to carry the profile. Are they being paid in cash or in shares? You'll likely find a corelation between the number of shares they are being paid, and the rating on the hype meter. Does that mean that you should avoid any stock where the company is paying IR professionals in shares? No. Just keep in mind that they are selling a story, and if they sell the story to other shareholders, they will gain. This is not a problem if you get in early, but could be a problem if you aren't able to jump in right away.

Take a look at the track record of the newsletter. Have they profiled winners? Do they state the facts, or state the hype? Do they also offer unpaid stock profiles? If they do, you'll likely find that they do their own research in all companies, and are looking to ensure that they aren't passing a weak stock your way just to pay the bills.

If a company is paying an IR professional money to profile a stock to its subscribers, should you avoid it? Of course not. Think of the payment as advertising. They are promoting the company, and trying to get exposure. Like any company, the only way to get exposure is through some method of advertising. So dont dismiss a paid profile as hype. Keep it in the back of your mind while you are reading the profile, but pay attention to the profile. You may find a diamond in the rough that no one has discovered.

Volume

If you want to make money, you have to be able to buy and sell enough shares to lock in your profit, or protect your capital. If ABC company's daily volume is only 500 shares a day, it may take you several days to accumulate a position worth taking. If there is bad news, who is going to buy your shares? If the volume is low, stay away. Its not worth it. If you feel that strongly about owning the company, consider contacting the company directly and working out a deal.

Buy Results, Not the Story

If you buy the hype, odds are, you will end up being the last one to own the shares, while everyone else has sold off their position. Look at a company, take a look at what their business plan was, and confirm if they have followed through on that plan. Were they successful? Did they bring a product to market on time? Did the company follow through on its acquisition strategy in the manner they set out? The hype might get you a quick pop, however, unless you are watching your trading screen every second of the trading day, you will miss out.

Size matters

There are thousands upon thousands of penny stocks. The size of your position should not be anymore than $2000 - $3000. While this may not seem like much, keep in mind that its not unusual for a $0.10 company to drop to $0.05. That's a 50% loss. If your position is $10 000, a 50% haircut leaves you with only $5000. Keep your losses to a minimum. If the company has done well, and you are up, either take your profits off the table, or add to your position, and be sure to reset your stop loss so as to protect your previous profits. Capital preservation is the key to successful trading.

Have a plan before you buy. What are your reasons for buying. What is your exit strategy? Where is your stop loss? At what point will you take your profit? Write down these answers before you place that buy order.

Penny stock investing can be profitable. Remember, you are taking larger risks than you would if you were purchasing shares in a bank stock. That risk can be rewarded with returns that you cant get with a bank stock, or, it will be met with a large loss and a bad taste in your mouth for investing in penny stocks.

Do your homework, don't believe the hype, and protect your capital.

Note: The Leading Source provides its subscribers with both paid and unpaid profiles. Follow those tips and you will watch your pennies grow into dollars.

How to evaluate an isl uranium company

Over the past two years, the common myth circulated among investors has been “pounds in the ground.” How many pounds of U3O8 does a company have in the ground? The more pounds a company claims, and more importantly gets institutions and investors to believe, the higher its market capitalization has run. Bigger is always better in most cases, but recovering uranium through an ISL operation, like any other mining operation, has its quirks.

During the early stage of this uranium bull market, pounds-in-the-ground was an important yardstick. But just as one can have a million-ounce gold deposit, with a complexity of metallurgical problems that prohibit a robust economic recovery or offer a paltry grade of gold in the ore, investors may discover the same problems in properly evaluating a company’s uranium claims. Instead of asking a company’s investor relations department how many pounds of uranium they have in the ground, find out how much uranium pounds they can actually recover and produce, and how much it will cost them to mine their property. Ask instead these questions:

· How permeable are the ore bodies you plan to mine?

· What is your average grade?

· Over what area does your rollfront extend?

· What is the depth of your ore body?

By the time you have finished reading this feature, you should have a better grasp on the economics of ISL mining. You should be better equipped to make a more intelligent decision about your favorite company. First, let’s examine the nature of a uranium mineralized rollfront. Understanding the rollfront will give you the key tools required to accurately evaluate the prospects of any ISL uranium development company.

THE “ROLL FRONT” IS YOUR FRIEND

In the first article, we interviewed Charles Don Show, who helped pioneer ISL uranium mining as an economic means to extract lower grade ore from underground mining operations. In Snow’s 1978 article entitled, “Gas Hills Uranium District, Wyoming – A Review of History and Production,” published in the Wyoming Geological Association Guidebook, he wrote about the development of the “roll front” theory. He wrote about discussions the project geologists were having in the summer of 1955 about Utah Construction Company’s recently acquired option on the Lucky Mc uranium properties in Wyoming’s Gas Hill District:

“Offset drilling Project 4 intersected one major mineralized zone with a grade thickness product over 10 percent U3O8. An offset of this and one other mineralized hole about 2500 feet away were barren. Many discussions of why the ore was in these ‘isolated’ pods were carried on late into the night… It was during the period of development of the reserves that members of the staff started referring to different layers and separated pods as areas of mineralization where chemical changes had caused deposition and soon the word ‘chemical front’ was in common usage.”

Three years later, Paul A. Riddell prepared a report to document the ore occurrences at the Lucky Mc mine. He was among the first to use terminology that has since become an integral part of the “Roll Front” concept. In his project report, Riddell wrote:

“In conclusion, the uranium appears to be restricted to more porous beds, but is not evenly distributed within these beds. The boundaries between ore and lean material are erratic – sometimes sharp and sometimes gradational. They do not appear to be related to changes in sedimentation within the beds. Others have suggested that the boundaries represent ‘chemical fronts,’ and this theory appears reasonable in light of present information.”

Originally called chemical fronts, these “pods” contained various grades of uranium. Each pod or roll front is comprised of different mineralization. Understanding that mineralization and how to extract the uranium alone determines how viable a deposit might be.

If you imagine roll fronts in a uranium area as if they were lily pods in a pond, you are off to a good start. When a company announces it has uranium mineralization on its property, this could mean it has many pods, or fronts. Ideally, you hope to have multiple “fronts” available on your ground. “Typically, the meat of the front (multiple percent of uranium) is only a few feet to ten feet wide at the most,” Strathmore Minerals president David Miller explained. “This is the part that your ISL wells have to address correctly. If you look at all the mineralization in a single front system, above 0.03 percent, then from the tails to the front could be 100 feet or more. If you look at the multiple fronts in stacked sands, and you look at one end of the system to the other, the width can be several miles. The length of any of these can be tens of miles, but the good stuff comes and goes.”

Miller compared these multiple fronts to “pearls on a string.” There may be one, two or three roll fronts in one well field. “There may be more than three roll fronts,” Miller added. “There may be that many or more even in one pattern.” Again, they are pods and they may be stacked in layers, like lasagna. “The number of roll fronts in a pattern does not really matter, except for operational reasons,” Miller explained. “It is more complex to properly address multiple roll fronts than a single roll front, and you may not be able to optimize recovery of all of them.”

PERMEABLITY IS THE KEY

Getting down to the business of ISL mining a roll front requires that we understand the role permeability plays in this mining method. Permeability is the flow rate of the liquids through the porous sandstone. Knowing what the permeability of the orebody will let you know how much water you can get through the sandstone formation. According to Uranerz Energy Chief Executive Glenn Catchpole, who is also a hydrologist, the typical porosity of sandstone is 10 to 20 percent. Porosity is the void space between the sandstone grains. By comparison, clay has a porosity of between 45 and 55 percent. Catchpole said, “A property’s formation has to have sufficient permeability to make the project economic.”

In order to dissolve the uranium into solution, you have to know the “pore volumes.” That’s the measure of the pore space in the rock. “You’re passing fluid through the formation about 30 times to dissolve the uranium,” explained UR-Energy Chief Executive William Boberg. “Part of a successful operation is knowing how many pore volumes we feel it’s going to take to make it all work.” Uranium Energy Corporation Chief Operating Officer Harry Anthony, an internationally recognized ISL expert, noted, “You need higher grade ore for tight formations. With high permeability, you can space your wells further apart.”

As with any industry, it boils down to economics. How much to operate the plant? Anthony gave an example of an ISL plant operating at 5000 gallons per minute. Running 24 hours daily, the plant would process 7.2 million gallons of water. That’s more than 2.6 billion gallons of water processed every year. Operating costs are based upon cost per thousand gallons of water. “This includes electricity, reagents and labor,” said Anthony. On a daily basis, it would cost more than $21,000 to run an ISL plant, based upon Anthony’s calculations of $3.03 per thousand gallons of water. Using a 5,000 gallon per minute scenario, a plant might produce 2360 pounds of U3O8 every day or 80,000 pounds monthly. The cost to produce each pound would be $8.18. Using that math, the uranium grades would be about 44 parts per million (ppm) or 0.08. Anthony said, “I like to see 70ppm or higher.” A grade of 0.13 is 75ppm.

With low permeability in a tight formation, you may need to space more wells in a typical well field pattern. How much does each well cost? That depends upon the depth of the roll front deposit. While explaining that costs are fixed and variable, Anthony computed the cost of a production well for a 500 foot deposit at $15,000. An injection well could cost $11,000 to install. By comparison, in New Mexico, where the deposits are wider and of higher grade, a 2000-foot production well might cost $27,000 and the injection well could cost $18,000, and it would still be economic.

Why are we talking about well installation costs? Again, it comes back to permeability. If the flow rate is lower, bringing an ISL well field into production costs more. Glenn Catchpole explained, “If your plant is running at 3000 gallons per minute (gpm), and the formation is tight, each production well might only have 10gpm flowing. A more permeable formation might have 20gpm flowing.” That means twice as many production wells are required to satisfy the ISL plant’s 3000gpm flow level. Installation costs have doubled, and that would also impact operating costs. And a company which once might have looked like it had an economic orebody could now smell like week old fish.

PUMP TESTING FOR PERMEABILITY

“The pump tests are extremely valuable,” explained Boberg. “The pump tests are one of the go/no-go considerations for what we’re doing.” Boberg told us UR-Energy expected to start drilling by the end of April or May on their Lost Soldier property in Wyoming. “We’ll be putting in the initial drill holes for the tests, and we’ll be doing the pump tests following that.” In one of series of tests, Boberg explained, “We take a core out of the hole (3 inches diameter and 6 inches tall) and test it vertically by forcing fluid through it.” Because the movement of the fluids in the substrata, from one well to another, is horizontal, the only way to really find out the permeability and porosity is by drilling a hole and putting a pump in it.

Catchpole explained the procedure, “You put the equipment down your monitor wells to measure drawdown.” Quite simply, you measure how far the water goes down. “The pump test will tell you permeability.” A good pump test takes between 24 and 72 hours to complete. Catchpole’s Uranerz Energy plans to run their pump tests this summer on their Excalibur property in the northeastern Wyoming’s Powder River Basin.

The make-break point for a formation’s permeability is its Darcy rating. How high is the Darcy? A typical Darcy can range from minus 1000 to plus 3. The higher the Darcy, the more permeable the formation and that would help determine how economic the orebody is. An acceptable range would be one-half to one Darcy. What is a Darcy? Catchpole said, “It is gallons per day over feet squared.” He added a pure hydrologist would calculate the feet per day or centimeters per second to get a more accurate permeability assessment. However, the Darcy is a widely accepted measuring unit in the industry.

Until a company gets its Darcy rating on its property, one can’t be completely certain the property can be mined by ISL. What guidelines does one depend upon? Catchpole said, “Historical research can give you permeability levels for a formation.” So we asked Catchpole how he felt about his Excalibur properties. He answered, “We know our properties are permeable enough.” How permeable will be answered with the pump tests.

OTHER FACTORS

Uranium grades can be a contentious point, so we asked our ad hoc panel of experts. “Grade is the driving force,” Harry Anthony shot back. We asked him about companies which said they could run an economic ISL operation with grades as low, or lower than 0.02. Anthony laughed, “They are crazy. They’d be out of business before they started.” Catchpole was more reserved in responding, “It probably wouldn’t have an economic recovery.” Strathmore’s David Miller offered a more technical analysis, “Frankly, that will not likely have enough recoverable pounds. The operating grade feeding the plant will be too low. What is the best grade? 0.5, 0.10, or 0.15. It depends upon the deposit.”

How much can you actually recover? Boberg explained the problems of pounds-in-the-ground. “Let’s say we’ve got 100 million pounds of uranium now. How much of that can we actually mine? There may be 10 million in a particular orebody that looks like we can mine it. If we build an operation around that, we might be able to develop an access to maybe 7 million pounds of that. And in a recovery process, we might only be able to recover 70 percent of that.” Every company has to also be very careful in studying their orebodies before building their plant. “We’ve got to make sure that the plant we’re building isn’t built over a potential resource,” Boberg emphasized. “We’ve got to drill under that to make sure we’re not accidentally putting the plant over another part of the deposit.”

Another worry with an orebody is channeling. “You don’t want channeling,” Catchpole insisted.” Channeling suggests the water is going through a very narrow path. “If your orebody has a thickness of ten feet and your channel of flow is one foot, you are missing most of the uranium formation,” said Catchpole. “You may have good flow rates, but not much U3O8 recovery.” Sometimes, a channel can be a natural occurrence, where the flow is along a fault. The channel creates a smaller, but preferred path for the fluids to flow through. . Unlike fracturing a formation to release natural, or coalbed methane, gas, a fractured channel has the opposite effect on ISL uranium mining.

How much does it cost to install a well field pattern, and is it economic to do so? “The art part of an ISL operation is interpreting the ore body and the hydrology,” Catchpole explained. “Your hydrologic test results determine where you think the solutions are going to flow best. In other words, which direction has the best or least permeability. This has to get factored into how you lay out those patterns, the width of your orebody, and how far out to the edge of the orebody you go.”

In a well field pattern, Strathmore’s David Miller can determine the economic viability of the ground. “The keys to what is recoverable are: (a) how many pounds are recoverable per pattern? And (b) what does it cost to install a pattern?” Miller explained. “If you have 10,000 pounds in place and can recover 8000 pounds, your well field development cost can be $8/pound, if it costs you $80,000 to install that pattern. Add your operating cost, capital amortization and restoration cost, and you would have a total cost.”

Finally, the cost to install a pattern also depends over how much territory your roll front deposits run. “Ten million pounds over an area of one-half mile will cost less than those same pounds over an area of two to four miles,” remarked Terrence Osier, senior geologist for Strathmore Minerals. “That means more injection wells and more production wells.” Depth of the wells influences its installation cost, as mentioned previously, and impacts its daily operating cost. “When uranium costs were very low, a few years ago, a company needed 70,000 pounds per pattern,” Harry Anthony commented. “Now a company might only need 20,000 pounds per pattern to make it economic.”

There are many variables within the above advices provided by these experts. However, the important point to realize is the time of hyperbole and hoopla over “pounds in the ground” has passed. As more uranium development companies move closer to establishing an ISL operation, the go/no-go consideration, as William Boberg aptly described it, will come down to permeability. After that, the economics of a project will either make it viable or not.

A disciplined and organized approach to trading in the stock market

: A Winning Approach to Trading in the Stock Market
Many traders lose simply out of ignorance. They base their trades on hunches, news, or tips from friends, and do not define specific risk and profit objectives before placing trades.

Others have the merit of educating themselves but fall victims of their emotions. They hold on to losing positions hoping they will turn into winners and sell winners by fear of losing a small gain. They overtrade to fulfill a need for action or by fear of missing out.

The consistent winners follow a winning approach:

  • They have a strategy to enter and exit trades
  • They use good money management
  • They take consistent actions, they follow a trading plan
  • They keep good records so they can review their actions
  • They avoid overtrading
  • They have a winning attitude

A strategy to enter and exit trades
You need to a strategy to put the odds in your favor for each trade you take. Your strategy should be as objective as possible and include the following elements:

  • Entry: conditions required before you can enter a trade - may include technical analysis, fundamental analysis, or both.
  • Initial stop loss: price at which you will close the entire position if it does not go in your favor. The risk per share is the difference between the entry price and the initial stop.
  • Initial price objective: price at which you will take some or all profits if the trade goes in your favor.
  • Trade management: set of rules that dictates your actions while a trade is opened. It may include trailing stops, closing position, etc…

For every action you take, the reason should be clearly described in your strategy.

Money management rules to keep losses small
The goal of money management is to ensure your survival by avoiding risks that could take you out of business. Your money management rules should include the following:

  • Maximum amount at risk for each trade. The different between your entry price and your initial stop loss is your risk per share. Your maximum amount at risk for each trade determines the share size.
  • Maximum amount at risk for all your opened positions.
  • Maximum daily and weekly amount lost before you stop trading – avoid trying to trade your way out of a hole after a loosing streaks.

During your learning phase, your goal should be to survive, not to make money. Start with low limits and raise them as you become a consistent winner otherwise you will simply go broke faster.

Good record keeping
Although the process of gaining experience cannot be rushed, it can be made much more efficient by keeping good records of your actions. Good records will allow you to:

  • Review your actions at the end of each day to make sure you followed you strategy, not your emotions.
  • Learn from your losses – they cost you money, make sure you get the education in return.

You should also keep a journal of your observations.

A trading plan to keep emotions out of your decisions
During trading hours, emotions will turn smart people into idiots. Therefore you have to avoid having to make decisions during those hours. This requires a detailed trading plan that includes your strategy and your money management rules.

For every action you take during trading hours, the reason should not be greed or fear. The reason should be because it is in the plan. With a good plan, your task becomes one of patience and discipline.

You have to follow the plan without exception. Any valid reason for an exception - for example, correcting an oversight - should become part of the plan.

Overtrading

Sometimes the best thing to do is to do nothing. Not trading on those bad days is key to becoming a consistent winner – in some situations it is very tempting to overtrade:

  • If you trade to fulfill a need for action, to relieve boredom
  • If you can’t find the proper setup but can’t wait
  • If you fear you are missing out on a great trade or on a great market
  • If you want to make up for losses (revenge)
  • If you trade to feel like you are working instead of sitting around. Trading involves a lot of work other than the actual buying and selling.

You should not trade under the following conditions  

  • You are not following my trading plan
  • You have reached your daily or weekly maximum loss
  • You are sick or very tired
  • You are very emotional (upset, pressured to make money, self-esteem destroyed)
  • You are using new tools you are not completely familiar with
  • You need time to work on your trading plan

A winning attitude
Losing traders look for a “sure thing”, hang on hope, and avoid accepting small losses. Their trading is based on emotions. You must treat trading as a probability game in which you don’t need to know what is going to happen next in order to make money. All you need to know is that the odds are in your favor before you put a trade.

If you believe in your edge, which is you believe that the odds in your favor for each trade you enter, then you should have no expectation other than something will happen.

Your attitude will have a direct influence on your trading results:

  • Take responsibility for all your actions – don’t blame the market or world events.
  • Trade to trade well and for the love of trading, not to trade often and not for the money. The money will come as a result of trading well.
  • Don’t be influenced by the opinions of others. Reach your own decisions and follow them.
  • Never think that taking money from the market is easy and never assume that you know enough.
  • Have no particular expectation when you place a trade because you know that anything can happen.
  • Don’t try to guess the future – trading is a game of probabilities.
  • Use your head and stay calm – don’t get excited or depressed.
  • Handle trading as a serious intellectual pursuit.
  • Don’t count how much money you have made or lost while you are in a trade - focus on trading well.
  • Trading Framework was designed to help you build those crucial elements into your trading.

    www. tradingframework. com

Sensex - stock market simulation

NASDAQ, Dow Jones, BSE & NSE; Do they ring any bell? They surely must have. Not every one knows what the color of money is, but what people do know is they want to feel more money and see more money.

Another well known fact is that the ever increasing number of the average human being would never want to jeopardize his money, which for him, is the sole means of existence. In the end, it is the human craving for more that makes him succumb to his urge and makes him take a plunge.

The only thing that makes the average investor lose out, is his inexperience. The Raging Bull lures many new people into its arena, but little do they realize what's in store for them. The market trends are tough to gauge. No one can ever be sure how high or low will stocks leap! Everything on earth has a risk involved, so does this market. We can't live with it but we can work around it.

Imagine a scenario where you as an amateur investor decide to take a dip. Based on a few tips from a few places, you make your pick. The possibility is that you might hit the nail, or may be you might get nailed. Every player who is a benchmark, be it a game, trade, business (depends on whatever you cal it) has had some level of practice and has learnt things the hard way. People have lost a lot of hope, money and many other things trying to figure out the market. They had to do it the hard way because they didn't have a place to hone their skills. A place where they could learn tricks of the trade, where they could make an investment without the fear of losing anything and at the same time, learn a lot more than the others.

But the question still remains! Would there be such a place. Is it one of those wonderland parties that people always think about and never find? Well!! Not this time. This time round all you investors are in for a good time. It fills me with pride to present to you the game of your lifetime. The SenSex Simulation!! This game is an assortment of all that I have gathered over the years.

The Game is a complete replication of the stock markets with live feeds for the values of stocks. Registered members get to play around with money in their account, using which they can purchase and sell off stocks. The game would also give you your daily stats. These would include your portfolio, the value of your stocks, and whether you have gained or lost out, relative to the market. The SenSex Simulation provides you with a platform to stand out of the ring and get a look and feel of the rumble.

“By the time you know the rules, you're too old to play the game!” It's never too late to start learning. Life is a vicious circle. Someone, who does not stop learning, never stops growing.

It's Time to tame the BULL!!

Choosing a stockbroker

It is true that even though you can choose your own investments you must still use a stockbroker to execute the orders. You do not have to rely in their advice though it may be helpful. You can make your own selections but you will still require their services to invest. There was a time when you had no choice about the type of stockbroker to utilize. There was only one type of broker, the full service brokers, and they controlled the market. The commissions that they demanded for their services were very high but this was the industry standard. This contributed to the notion that the stock market and stock market investment were beyond the means of the average person and only for the very affluent.

The initial loss of control of the market by these full service brokerages occurred in 1975 and discount brokers emerged. They charged a fraction of the fees the full service brokers did and as such were a big hit on the market. They offered the same great services but were affordable to the average individual as the cost were significantly lower. Another great innovation was the introduction of the internet. This was a great innovation as there was greater trading efficiency as a result.

The overall effect of all the changes on the stock market was that individuals now had access to a ton of information that was never accessible to them previously. It is a debate however whether these avenues have in fact enhanced investments and made better investors. In the case of persons that do their homework and seek out the truth behind the hype the answer is a definitive yes. The investors out their can now choose the type of broker they require from the range available.

There are four categories of brokers. These are the discount/online broker, the discount broker that provides advice, the full service broker and the money manager. The discount/online broker is basically an order taker. They do not offer advice and will not tell you when to buy or sell a stock. There may be research available and other account management tools but the choice of investment in the stock market is entirely up to you.

The variation of the discount/online broker that assists customers is the nest type. They do not offer full consultation services but will have more research than order taking sites. They will offer newsletters and investing tips but most likely not recommend particular stocks. You are not totally on your own with this option but you will still need to do a lot in terms of deciding on the best stock investment.

The full service broker will provide recommendations on specific stocks and the broker will also access your financial situation to determine your needs and investment options. This service is suitable for the investor that does not have the interest or time in making their investment decisions.

The money manager is made for the investor with a hefty investment sum. This broker will handle only significant portfolios and will invest and manage the entire account for a percentage of the assets under investment. This option can be expensive but very worthwhile in the long run.

Whichever option that you choose make sure it suits your purpose and that you are covered by the Securities Investor Protection Corporation. Ask about backups and other options in case of technical problems and ensure that your broker has your best interest at heart.

An inside look at cameco s smith ranch uranium facility

Cameco Corp (NYSE: CCJ) is the 800-pound gorilla of the uranium sector. Cameco is to uranium what Wal-Mart is to retailing, and what Saudi Aramco is to petroleum. On a percentage basis, Cameco dominates its sector more so than either of the two. Cameco probably has more clout in turning off the electricity now powering your computer than any other company in the world.

This week, the spot price of uranium rose to $40/pound, for the first time since Ronald Reagan was president. That should help grow the uranium business in Wyoming by leaps and bounds. In Part 5, we look at the largest U. S. uranium producer, Cameco-owned Power Resources.

Understanding ‘In Situ Leach’ Uranium Extraction

“It took $284 million Canadian to build, and it operated with 546 people,” said Patrick Drummond, Plant Superintendent for Cameco subsidiary Power Resources’ Smith Ranch facility. He was pointing to Kerr McGee’s Smith Ranch underground mine on the wall across from desk, which was later converted into an ISL operation, first run by Rio Algom. “This operation cost US$44 million to build and 80 people to start.” Drummond was referring to the In Situ Leaching (ISL) uranium extraction facility, known as Smith Ranch. “That should give you the scale of the ISL versus an underground mine,” he explained.

The aging, but sprightly, Drummond knows his uranium. He’s worked in underground mines, open pit mines, and uranium mills since 1980. From 1996 to the present day, he’s worked in Wyoming for Power Resources at the company’s ISL uranium extraction facility. “I started off in the coal mines in Scotland,” boasted Drummond, who claims he can spot a coal miner in a bar, just by looking at the veins in his hands. “I worked up in Elliot Lake and the massive underground mines up there.” Clasping his hands and looking down, he seemed to apologize, “It’s also a massive environmental problem to clean up, a major undertaking. Quirk Lake was one of the bigger mines up there. It cost a lot of money to clean it up.”

The New Face of Wyoming’s Uranium Mining is the ISL uranium extraction method, also known as solution mining. The differences between mining uranium underground and an ISL operation are both minor and vast. Both methods mine uranium beneath the surface. So both methods are underground mining. However, that is where the similarities end. “With underground, you bring up the ore, grate it, crush it, and extract the uranium from the ore,” Drummond explained the basics of underground uranium mining. “That ore becomes waste, which is known as tailings. You then have to service these big tailings and then decommission.”

ISL is the new breed of mining. “With ISL, we don’t do that,” continued Drummond in his day-long lecture to our editorial team during a VIP tour of the Smith Ranch facility. “To mine underground with ISL, you drill the holes where the uranium is and extract the uranium from the underground ore,” he said. “Then, you process that into yellowcake.”

It’s not all wine and roses for Drummond, though. He pines away for his underground mines, “From a mining perspective, it’s not mining so it is not as exciting. Drummond laughs, “ISL is like a water treatment plant. We take water out and remove some ions.” He makes it sound so simple, “We remove the water from the underground and remove the ions, being the uranium ion. Then, we put the water back under the ground.” All of the water goes back into the ground? Actually no. Drummond explained, “We take our water out and we put 99 percent back in. The one percent we call ‘bleed.’ It’s a control function.”

Drummond cites more comparables, “To start an underground mine, it would take a year to do the shaft before you could start mining. Then, there’s the development cost of the mill complex. You have all that outlay of cost before you can get any benefit. It’s expensive to do underground -- $200 million plus – because of the upfront development costs.” From his perspective, the miner in Drummond has come to like solution mining. “ISL is easier. It is a lot cheaper: less expensive capital costs and less operating expenditures. It is less labor intensive.” Asked about the deadly radon emissions, often cited as a danger in underground mining, Drummond shot back, “This is a zero emission facility.”

Analyzing the two methods, he said, “You can start producing faster with an ISL operation. You start your first header house, and you can start producing and make money.” He added, “So you get a return on your investment faster.” What’s the downside? “We also recover less uranium with ISL,” Drummond admitted. “Some of Cameco’s mines in Saskatchewan are running around 5, 10, 15, and 27 percent uranium. In this area, or in an ISL, it runs less than one or two percent. It’s very low.” Plus the uranium ore body must be found below the water table. He added, “You can only do ISL in rock that’s porous and has water in it in the first place.”

To put it in the simplest terms, billions of years ago, the uranium found its way into the underground aquifers of Wyoming’s sandstones. “We add oxygen and get the uranium back into solution,” Drummond remarked. “We complex it with CO2 to keep it in solution, and then bring it to the surface. We extract it with an ion exchange base.” According to Drummond, extracting uranium works on the same principle as a water softener. “We add salts to the resin to get the uranium to back off from the resin. Then, we take that uranium and make it into a final product called yellow cake.”

And why it is called yellowcake? “Some of it is yellow; some of it is green or dark green. Some of it is black,” Drummond patiently explained. “The color is a function of how we dry it, not how we process it. There is a very definite correlation between drying temperatures of yellow cake and color.” It all depends on what chemicals you use while processing uranium. At Smith Ranch, we make uranium peroxide. It is very clean and yellow. We complex uranium with hydrogen peroxide to make our product. You can make different types of yellowcake. You can make a uranium diuranate, a complex made with ammonia.” Yellowcake can be made with other chemicals.

How is Wyoming’s ISL uranium dried? “We dry the uranium with vacuum dryers,” said Drummond. “The benefit of vacuum dryers is first of all, it’s a vacuum so everything is sucked inside the canister so nothing escapes into the environment. There are no gases that escape.”

Investigating the Environmental Issues

It was, at this point, we felt it appropriate to inquire about all the puzzling worries many of us might correlate when thinking about nuclear energy and uranium. How safe is all of this really? “When we first started uranium mining, we inherited people from the gold mines,” Drummond explained. “They were underground, and smoking, breathing in the dust. In the early days, we didn’t have good ventilation. In underground mining, you’ve got to keep the air moving.” Hard rock underground mining produces dust. “The shards of silicone you are breathing stick to the follicles on your lungs,” he noted. But that doesn’t happen during the ISL extraction process. No emissions, a farm of well fields with underground pipes and tubing, and very detailed safeguards explain they the lobby wall of Power Resources is lined with Safety Award certificates and plaques.

“On a daily basis, when we leave the facility, we are scanned for alpha radiation,” continued Drummond. “Depending upon your position here, you get urinalysis once per week or once per month. We also check for radiation levels.” How did Drummond fare on his most recent radiation check? “I was way below,” he laughed. “There are guys on the beach in Malibu that have higher radiations than I have.”

What precautions does Power Resources take to protect the environment during the ISL extraction process? “Since 1996, we have had zero excursions,” Drummond announced with steeliness in his voice. “We take very great pains to look at the topography, so if we do have an excursion, we make sure it does not enter what we call the ‘waters of the state.’ Any channel that could take that and move it into the ‘waters of the state,’ is something that we are very cognizant of.”

After the holes are drilled into the well fields, a company does a ‘baseline sample.’ Drummond said, “That’s a sample of the constituents in the water. When we mobilize the uranium, we mobilize other items. It is our duty here, after we start the well field, to return the aquifer back to baseline when we are done.” He added, “If we know what’s in the water before we start, then we know how to restore it to background.” Restoration of the underground tampering with Mother Nature can take anywhere from 18 to 36 months.

The company is meticulous in restoring the landscape as well. Any restoration work on the surface is called “reclamation.” That can involve farming. “When we start a well field, we have to, by license, remove the topsoil and store it somewhere,” Drummond explained. “When we go back to reclaim the property, we take all the pipes out, we take the houses down, and cut our wells off. It’s all identified. We put an ID marker on the well. In 50 years time, when Farmer Joe comes around and wonders what was there, the state can say, ‘That was a uranium well.’ From the time we’ve stopped mining, we put everything back to normal.”

It takes from two to four months, or up to seven years, to exhaust a well field, depending upon the roll fronts. While it can take up to 24 months to put in a well field, reclamation and restoration take longer. “We put back the topsoil on, depending upon the weather, as soon as we can,” said Drummond. “We re-seed, during the spring or the fall, which is the best time for seeds. The seed we use is dictated by the regulators so we use a certain amount of native vegetation.” Because it’s very dry at the Smith Ranch, nearly bordering on desert, and because it is also very windy, slapping down the topsoil won’t last very long. “First, we plant some fast-growing oats to establish a root bed,” he explained. “If we just planted grasses, it would all blow away. Because we plant the oats, we have fat antelope and fat deer.” From our observations, the sheep were well-fed and frisky.

How does Wyoming ISL mining compare to other places, such as in Texas or in Kazakhstan? “In Wyoming, the water is pristine, very clean, even compared to Texas, where they do ISL,” answered Drummond. “The water’s pretty clean down there also.” Is the uranium the same? “When we bring our uranium to the surface, it comes up as uranyl dicarbonate,” he responded. “In Texas, it comes up as uranyl tricarbonate.” What’s the difference? It’s in the processing of the uranium. “We get about 8.5 pounds of pounds of uranium per cubic foot of resin,” he explained. “In Texas, they get about 3 to 4 pounds of uranium per cubic foot of resin.”

Drummond described the Smith Ranch ion exchange operation, “We have two columns in the ion exchange, each with about 500 cubic feet of resin.” The resin costs about $200/cubic foot and, barring mechanical damage, can last up to thirty years, according to Drummond. The polymer beads – they look like tiny plastic ball bearings – capture the uranium during the processing phase. “In Kazakhstan, you get about two to three pounds of uranium per cubic foot of resin,” he continued. “They use hydrochloric acid because of the water conditions. Of course, you’ve changed the chemistry of the water and have all the acid to clean up.” Drummond described the water in Kazakhstan as very brackish, and yellowish. “The TDS (total dissolved solids) is very high,” he added. “The water’s not fit for human consumption anyways.” He laughed, “Using acid over there cleans their water up.”

Entities in the trading system in indian stock markets

There are four entities in the trading system. Trading members, clearing members, professional

clearing members and participants.

1. Trading members: Trading members are members of NSE. They can trade either on their own

account or on behalf of their clients including participants. The exchange assigns a Trading member

ID to each trading member. Each trading member can have more than one user. The number of

users allowed for each trading member is notifi ed by the exchange from time to time. Each user

of a trading member must be registered with the exchange and is assigned an unique user ID. The

unique trading member ID functions as a reference for all orders/trades of different users. This ID is

common for all users of a particular trading member. It is the responsibility of the trading member

to maintain adequate control over persons having access to the fi rm’s User IDs.

2. Clearing members: Clearing members are members of NSCCL. They carry out risk management

activities and confi rmation/inquiry of trades through the trading system.

3. Professional clearing members: A professional clearing members is a clearing member who is not

a trading member. Typically, banks and custodians become professional clearing members and clear and settle for their trading members.

4. Participants: A participant is a client of trading members like financial institutions. These clients

may trade through multiple trading members but settle through a single clearing member

Trading using multiple time frames

: Why do we need to Trade Using Multiple Timeframes? To improve the efficiency of our trading strategy. We see the major Trend using a higher time frame than what we intend to use & a lower Time frame to enter a trade. Say we want to trade using the Daily Charts. We take the Weekly charts to see the major trend. Suppose it’s an uptrend in a Weekly chart. We will tend to trade only long positions. We will use entries in the daily charts to enter long positions only. When sell signals are generated we will just exit our long positions. I. e. we don’t short sell. Suppose it’s a downtrend in a Weekly chart. We will tend to trade only short positions. We will use a entries in the daily charts to enter short positions only. When buy signals are generated we will just exit our short positions. I. e. we don’t enter long positions. Now that we are using two timeframes. Now coming to timing the entry of trades or adding additional positions. (Pyramiding) We can further use a Hourly chart to time our entries. Supposethe weekly & daily charts are in a uptrend. We will enter a long position or an additional long position when a hourly chart gives us a buy signal. Supposethe weekly & daily charts are in a downtrend. We will enter a short position or an additional short position when a hourly chart gives us a sell signal. This timeframe would not be used to exit the trades. It’s solely to improve the timing for entry. For exits we would use the signals generated in the daily charts. Using multiple time frames to trade We take three charts of the same security. First is the weekly chart. Next chart is the daily chart. Third chart is the hourly chart. We will now use the daily chart to trade. We check the weekly chart for the weekly trend. Lest assume the weekly trend is up. So based on this information we will just trade long positions in the daily chart. We look for a buy opportunity in the daily chart or we can see the hourly chart to enter a long position. Now for entering additional positions we use buy opportunities in the hourly chart. We would exit based on the daily chart only, because we were trading based on the daily chart. Similarly we can trade short where weekly charts are in a downtrend and daily chart generates sell opportunity. Additional positions are entered whenever sell opportunities are generated on the hourly charts. For Day trading we can use the Hourly, 15 Min and 5 Min charts here we trade the 15 Minchart. Or we can use 15 Min, 5 Mins and 3 Mins charts here we trade the 5 Mins chart. Good Luck and Happy Trading.

Use the power of autosuggestion in the stock market

Self-Confidence is an essential starting point for any business venture. This is true even more if the business is trading in the stock market because psychology plays such a major role. Keep reading, this might change your life!

About 10 years ago, I received a copy of the book "Think and Grow Rich!" written by Napoleon Hill. Today, I credit most of my success in business (including trading) to this book.

At first applying some of the principles described in this book appears a bit crazy - for example reading a Self-Confidence formula and a Definite Plan aloud every day. But you really have to look at it with an opened mind and believe me (and many peoples who have made millions) this stuff works:

Here is a brief overview (you really need to get the book):

- First - you must have a burning desire - for a trader this desire should be "to become a consistent winner in the stock market".

- Second - you have to have a definite goal including the amount you want to make and the date by which you want this money to be in your account.

- Third - You need a definite plan, or what you will do in exchange for this money.

Here is an example of a plan - it is generic enough to be applied to most trading styles. Items specific to your style should be added. Your plan should be read aloud first thing in the morning and right before going to bed.

By December 31st 2006, I will make $200,000 dollars with my trading. In return for this money I will do the following:

- I will follow a trading plan to guide my trading - therefore my job will be one of patience and discipline

- I will plan each trade carefully - I will not jump into trades by fear of missing out

- I will monitor the market's current picture

- I will monitor the current picture for each industry

- I will manage my trades to protect my capital and my profits

- I will protect my capital through good money management

- I will take responsibility for all my actions.

- I will trade to trade well and for the love of trading, not to trade often and not for the money. The money will come as a result of trading well.

- I will not be influenced by the opinions of others. I will reach my own decisions and follow them.

- I will build the self-trust necessary to operate in an unlimited environment which has no rules.

- I will be rigid in my rules and flexible in my expectations.

-I will never think that taking money from the market is easy and I will never assume that I know enough.

-I will have no particular expectation when I place a trade because I know that anything can happen.

-I will treat trading as a probability game in which I don't need to know what is going to happen next in order to make money. All I need to know

is that the odds are in my favor before I put a trade

- I believe that I deserve this money. I believe that I will have this money in my possession. My faith is so strong that I can now see this money before my eyes. I can touch it with my hands. It is now awaiting transfer into my account. I am awaiting a plan by which to accumulate this money, and I will follow that plan when it is received.

Read (and reread) this book and apply its principles to your life - and notice the difference in your Self-Confidence.

Why is eric sprott a uranium bull

Eric Sprott may be Canada's answer to Warren Buffet. He's got the Midas Touch and currently manages more than $3 billion. We talked to Eric Sprott about uranium and why he is bullish on nuclear energy.

Interviewer:

Uranium had been inching higher from 2001 until a year ago. Since then, it has soared up the price chart. What is a realistic price for uranium and how high can you envision it reaching?

Eric Sprott:

There is obviously a shortage between current mine production and current uranium consumption. In order to correct that imbalance, it would have to be economic to open up new deposits. I’m not suggesting that it (uranium) has to go to $100 to become economic. I don’t think that’s true. Probably at $50, it becomes very economic. The reality is that we’ve been so slow in getting started that I think the whole nuclear industry will ultimately prove to be the key energy source of the future. With demand today at 170 million (pounds), who knows? It might be 300 million pounds in twenty years. The argument in the article we wrote is that based on the previous peaks, prices if you put a normal inflation rate on it, it would equate to something like $100. So, it’s not that far fetched that we might get there.

Interviewer:

If it takes four or five years, or up to a decade, to get a nuclear reactor going, why are the Chinese building so many so quickly?

Eric Sprott:

Because they’ve been doing it right. One of the nice things about a centrally organized government is they deal with big issues. Obviously, China has a big issue in energy. If you were sitting over there, you would realize, ‘My god, we’re starting to import two million barrels of oil. We used to export coal and now we don’t export coal. What are we going to do if our growth rate continues to grow at eight or nine percent per year? How much power are we going to need? And where is it all going to come from when there are already shortages of the two most commonly used energy sources in the country?" The option you fall back on is, ‘Well, let’s go nuclear. We have to go into all of them.’ And of course, now they’re predicting two nuclear reactors every year for the next ten years. Who knows? Maybe five years from now, that will be four reactors every year. Perhaps when we all realize the extent of the energy shortage.

Interviewer:

How is this going to be sold to North America and Europe in the wake of Three Mile Island and Chernobyl?

Eric Sprott:

The way things might change is now that we have $50 oil, and the price is almost going up in an unlimited fashion. Now that we’ve got coal at double and uranium that’s gone up, people might finally realize there is not an infinite supply of certain things that we rely on. And that we might have to take a more pragmatic view of the nuclear option. I’m sure that is exactly what certain countries, including Japan, China and France, have done. The other thing is that there is a new reactor where you can’t have a meltdown. I’m not technically strong enough to explain it. The uranium is in graphite spheres, and they won’t melt down unless temperatures reach 2000 degrees. The highest it ever goes to is 1600 degrees so it’s just not going to melt down. It doesn’t matter if things are out of control. They won’t break down. If that kind of assurance were accepted by the public – if someone could prove that that was the case – I think the nuclear option would be an incredibly viable option. Another thing that would make people think differently would be having brownouts for a while, or hyperinflation because of the shortage of coal, natural gas, and diesel fuel. If we had brownouts for a while, and of course they have brownouts in China, which is probably why they are proactive in moving nuclear along.

Interviewer:

How realistic is the global energy crisis moving toward a Hubbert’s Peak, an energy scenario from the year 1970?

Eric Sprott:

My view is that it seems very realistic. I think it is very important that we do go back to 1970. Look at the fact that Hubbert said in 1956 that 1970 will forever peak out (in terms of energy production). Lo and behold, it peaked out! It almost goes down every week in the United States. Almost every week, there is a little less production. This is now with very high oil prices. It looks like his theory, for the geographical area called the United States, worked. Do we think it is going to work in the world? I tend to believe it is. I believe there are projections for Great Britain, which I think are at about 4.2 million barrels/day right now, that in ten years from now, will be down to 700,000. That’s what happens when fields go into decline. They go down, and you can not resuscitate them. Everyone who studies the topic knows that no significant discoveries have been made since the 1960s. What I mean by significant are giant oil fields – like Ghawar. For example, people now consider a 100-million barrel field a big deal, and 500 million is great. Well, one hundred million is like 1.2 days of world’s supply, and 500 million is eight days supply. You have got to find a lot of those every year. We don’t find them. We have hardly found anything. The Caspian Sea? I am guessing it is 500 to 700 million. It’s the one thing we point to, the thing in the Caspian Sea, which we have been pointing to for the last three years. Let’s say it is 800 million barrels, it is ten days’ supply. It’s nothing.

Interviewer:

There have been some pretty incredible estimates as to how high oil can go. The highest we’re read of stands at $182 for a barrel of oil and $15 per gallon of gasoline. Your comments?

Eric Sprott:

When you get into any commodity, where there is a bonafide shortage, there is no limit on the price. There is hardly any limit on the price. Because that last guy still wants that last barrel of oil. I always say, when a commodity is starting to break loose, ‘Never put a ceiling on it because you never know where it is going to go.’ You look at what is going on in the world oil situation. If I was (in charge of ) certain countries, I would probably be changing what I’m doing. You can see China going throughout the world signing agreements with countries to assure oil supplies. It’s a government mandate to go out and secure their supplies. I think people at the government level realize, ‘We have issues here that we have to solve. If we don’t have assurance of supply, what happens?’ One thing about Hubbert’s Peak that most people don’t go to is the economic impact. Forget the price of oil. What if we produce 83 million barrels today, and in 25 years we have 55 million barrels? What is the world going to do? Do we just have to shut down economies because we don’t have a replacement for hydrocarbons?

Interviewer:

Do you think the world governments are prepared for this?

Eric Sprott:

Not at all. They show no interest. In fact, I would say one of the real problems with the democratic process is, unfortunately, too much time is spent thinking about politics. Hardly any time is spent planning for the future.

Interviewer:

On uranium, you recommended a number of uranium companies in your special report. Cameco (NYSE: CCJ) seems to be the one many recommend. Other uranium companies seem to be in the exploration or the more speculative category, and now have some momentum because of the bull market in uranium. How strong are the fundamentals in those companies?

Eric Sprott:

I think the fundamentals for some of the companies are spectacular, quite frankly. It’s interesting for us because we had the same thing happen in gold, when the price of gold was $250. We tried to imagine what we should buy if, and when, gold went to $400, which we thought it would, or $500 or higher. The real opportunity always lay in, ‘We’ll find someone who has a large resource that is uneconomic today, but if you move the price up, it becomes quite economic.’ I would say Strathmore (TSX-V: STM). They have a large resource already identified. In fact, they are acquiring properties all the time that were identified years and years ago. Yet, at $20/pound uranium, they probably don’t make any sense. But, at $40/pound uranium, they are likely to make tremendous economic sense. Of course, the value of the shares can almost – not go up exponentially – but they can go up a lot. You finally tip over that breakeven level, and everything after that is profit. We had an analogy like that in gold area, where one guy went out and bought all these deposits that would make sense at $400 gold. The stock has been a tremendous winner. I think it is up 500 percent. I think the same can happen in uranium. That’s why we go to Strathmore and UEX (TSX: UEX). There are a couple drilling in Saskatchewan: JNR Resources (TSX-V: JNN) and International Uranium Corporation (TSX: IUC).

Interviewer:

How do you feel about precious metals?

Eric Sprott:

We feel pretty good about precious metals. We’ve been pretty bullish for quite a while now. We have liked the fundamentals for gold for a long time for any one of ten different reasons. The one reason I fall back on, that gives me tremendous comfort, is the fact the world consumes 4,000 tons of gold per year, but mine production is 2,500. Anybody who uses any bit of logic knows, in due course, the price will go up to reflect the imbalance between demand and supply. I don’t care how much gold Central Banks sell, ultimately they are going to have no gold. I think people realize that Central Banks have made a big mistake selling their gold.

Interviewer:

The China card keeps driving global commodities as they bring their country more technology. How do you feel about the base metals?

Eric Sprott:

We haven’t really gotten involved in the base metals. One of the reason we haven’t gone there is we have believed we are in a secular bear market, and there could be a financial implosion. In that kind of scenario the base metals don’t do well. But the precious metals can provide safety. That’s the distinguishing mark we make between the two. On the China thesis, the demand for all of these things would go up. Our problem is we still expect some fallout in the financial arena, which ultimately would even affect China. We feel more comfortable with the precious metals, and we feel more comfortable with energy. Simply, energy demand in an economic implosion is pretty inelastic. It doesn’t fall off the table. Demand for zinc, lead, copper, and aluminum can fall quite precipitously if there was an economic slowdown.

Interviewer:

Are you expecting an economic slowdown?

Eric Sprott:

Absolutely, yes. We might be in it now. There are certainly lots of signs that there is not much robustness in the U. S. economy. I have some very strong views as to what should ultimately happen in the U. S. My views are predicated on the fact that the government reports a deficit of $400 billion, but there are also government reports that suggest, on a GAAP accounting basis, that the true deficit in 2003 was $3.4 trillion. We can all ignore it, and everyone has ignored it. But, the reality is that the liabilities are accruing for Social Security and Medicare in the U. S. at a tremendous rate. There has been no provision for it. There was a paper released by the U. S. Treasury Department about a year ago that said the present value of their obligations, that are not funded, is $44 trillion. Again, we can choose to believe it or not believe it. I happen to believe it. I made the point that politicians are in it to be re-elected, and they are not dealing with the real issue. The real issue is they are making promises to their citizens that they can’t keep. And they’re not going to keep them. I would hate to be a retired person or a young person in the U. S. Somebody is going to have to bear the brunt of all these funding issues that haven’t been taken care of. Beginning in 2008, the baby boomers start collecting these things. That’s a real cash problem. Before, it was just a bookkeeping problem. You’ll have a huge influx of people collecting their Social Security and getting free Medicare. It’s got to be funded. Anyone who’s looked at the problem has agreed that no one has done anything about funding it. You have to cut what your promises were, which is what all the European governments are now trying to do. They’re all cutting back on the pension. Most companies are cutting back on them because they can’t fund them. The trend is in place here: What we thought we were going to get, we’re not going to get it. Am I bearish? Gosh, we’ve had forty years of living off of savings that were supposed to be saved to provide this future. It was all spent. Everyone just chooses to ignore it.

Eric Sprott

Founder and Chairman of Sprott Securities Inc., Toronto, one of Canada's consistently top-ranked investment firms. After earning his designation as a Chartered Accountant, Eric entered the investment industry working in research as well as institutional sales. In 1981, Eric founded Sprott Securities Limited (now Sprott Securities Inc.) which, under Eric's leadership, has become one of the most successful investment firms in Canada.

Eric Sprott has established himself as a clear leader in Canada's investment community. With over 30 years of industry experience, his expertise at making predictions on the market and recognizing investment opportunities with superior growth potential have been proven many times over. His investment abilities are clearly demonstrated by the excellent performance track record of Sprott Managed Accounts, Sprott Canadian Equity Fund and the Sprott Hedge Fund L. P.

At the 2003 graduation, Eric Sprott, President, Sprott Securities Ltd. and Carleton alumnus for whom the Sprott School of Business was named after, was awarded a Doctor of Laws, honoris causa by Carleton University in recognition of an outstanding career as an entrepreneur, investor and philanthropist.

Pink sheets discover disclosure

Once upon a time in the world of finance there were three kingdoms the most widely recognized was also the most snobbish and wealthiest its subjects were affluent and known worldwide. Its king was NYSE (New York Stock exchange) the king ruled proudly over his subjects.

Every brokerage firm had a stock ticker to provide their customer with trade information on NYSE listed stocks.

The second kingdom was not so well off, it had less subjects and the inhabitants were much poorer than those ruled by NYSE, the king was named AMEX (American Stock Exchange). They could be classified as low middle class.

Now the third kingdom was the largest of all, it’s subjects range from middle class to very poor, this kingdom was ruled by OTC (Over The Counter Market). Some of the subjects of OTC were always looking to migrate to NYSE or Amex to escape the stigma attached to being a resident of OTC.

Some of the stock that at one time traded in the Pink Sheets are well known today such as EDS and many new IPO, as well as bank and insurance companies, but you also had stocks trading for a fraction of a penny.

If you wanted a price on a OTC stock you would call your broker who looked in the pink sheets to see who the market makers were, he would get on the phone to a market maker and ask the person answering the phone for a quote, the person answering the phone then gets the price from a blackboard in the front of the room and give it to the broker making the inquiry, this would take some time.

Market makers had a quote boy in the front of the trading room changing the blackboard every time a trader yelled a different price, this markets were good for 100 shares,

In those days it was possible to buy from one market maker at a price and turn around and sell to another market maker at higher price because the one market maker had no idea what the market was unless he made a phone call. So you always found disparities in the price of a stock.

Along came a knight in shining armor named NASDAQ the NASD Automatic Quotation System, which allow brokers to see the price by computer, it gave the mean market (average market) not the best price, but it was a giant step forward.

These NASDAQ machine did not provide live quotes you had to keep on pressing the enter key in order to see the updated quote.

And eventually all the better stocks were gradually included on the NASDAQ systems leaving the more obscure and unprofitable companies to trade on the pink sheet. And again the NASD decided to sink the pink sheets even further into the land of obscurity by creating the OTC Bulletin Board.

The OTC Bulletin Board started out not requiring much information from the issuer but gradually started requesting more information and now they must have audited financial and must be reporting.

All this left the pink as the only market in total disclosure darkness being the only ones not requiring the issuer to disclose its financial reports.

But on February 15, 2005 a little daylight came into the pinks, on this day a new policy was implemented, this policy requires issuers of newly traded securities to disclose adequate current information to the investing public.

This is only required of those companies which have securities quoted on an unsolicited basis on the pink sheets, and have never been listed on an exchange or quoted on the OTCBB.

If an issuer is quoted on an unsolicited basis, this means that the NASD has not cleared a market maker to enter a quote in the security pursuant to SEC Rule 15c2-11. Instead, a broker is relying on an exemption to the rule in order to display a quotation representing an unsolicited customer order. This exception has been used to trade securities of new issuers without any disclosure to the investing public. To address this situation, in October 2004, Pink Sheets revised their policy for brokers entering unsolicited quotes in a new security that has never been listed on an exchange or quoted on the OTCBB. They now require that prior to publication of an unsolicited quote in the Pink Sheets for such securities the broker must ascertain that the issuer has made adequate current information publicly available on the pink sheets website. The disclosure policy has been a good attempt at creating transparency of the basic information that investors trading in public markets deserve.

Pink Sheets is now extending this requirement to companies that were previously quoted on an unsolicited basis. If the companies did not make the required disclosure by February 15, 2005, they removed their displayed quotation from the website.

This new policy is a big step forward for the Pink Sheets and they should be applauded for it, but I Personally would like to see all companies being required to make complete disclosure.

If a company is unable for whatever reason to disclose their finances and corporate updates to the investing public then they should not be allow to trade on any public market.

These companies operating in total darkness are the vehicles being used by stock manipulators to scam the investing public, even though the Pink Sheets have taken this giant step they must remove all non-disclosing companies from the public market place.

I am not sure the pink Sheets have the authority to do so but SEC does, and the SEC is the agency responsible for protecting the investing public.

Lets congratulate the Pink sheet for this change in policy and hope that they will continue to upgrade their standards, as a direct result of this policy we at Genesis Corporate Advisors are changing our policy of not bringing any company public to the Pink sheets.

Effective immediately we will begin considering candidate for the Pink sheets but our preference will continue to be The OTC Bulletin Board because we want as much transparency as possible.

In order to have viable healthy market you must have willing investors with access to current and accurate information.

For additional information visit: http://www. genesiscorporateadvisors. com

Seasonal trading strategy for stock funds and us federal employee tsp 401k retirement accounts

“Sell in May and Stay Away” Words to live and invest by? I don’t know who coined the phrase but I did a bit of research and yes this strategy would have worked out for you is you had implemented it over the life of the TSP retirement account. Of course we know past performance does not guarantee future results but there is something here that makes this investor think that just maybe there is something more to the story this time.

There are five funds available in the Thrift Savings Plan.

The C Fund is based on the S&P 500

The F Fund is designed to match the bonds in the Lehman Brothers U. S. Aggregate (LBA) index.

The G Fund invests in short-term U. S. treasuries

The S Fund follows the Wilshire 4500 index

The I Fund follows the EAFE index

From its inception in 1988 through the end of 2005 the C Fund (based on the S&P 500) has averaged 12.61556% per year. In the months October through May it averaged12.87611%. From June through September it averaged -0.26056%. For the same 18 year period, the F Fund averaged 3.356111% for the four months June through September. Had you sold all of your stock C Fund on May 31 and moved all your money into the F Fund and then moved all of your money from the F Fund back to the C Fund on September 30th, you would have realized a 3.616667% per year increase in your rate of return over 18 years. Let me repeat this, a 3.616667% annual increase based on only two trades per year.

From 2001 through 2005 the C Fund (based on the S&P 500) annual average was only 2.22%. Its average gain October through May was 9.24% while it’s June through September average was an appalling 7.02% loss. Utilizing the same strategy as above, our average rate of return would have jumped from an anemic 2.22% to a healthy 11.38%. That is an amazing increase of over 9% based on just two trades per year.

Since its inception in 2001 the S Fund (based on the Wilshire 4500 index) has averaged 9.314% and the I Fund (based on the EAFE index) averaged 6.56%. They show the same pattern of gains October through May, with gains of 14.05% for the S Fund and 10.368% for the I Fund annually during those eight months. They also continue the S Fund pattern of losses Jun through September, a 4.736% loss for the S Fund and 3.808% loss for the I Fund. Using the same strategy of eight months in the S and I funds and four months in the F Funds, you would have realized additional gains of 6.336% for the S Fund and 5.378% for the I fund brining your rate of return to 15.65% for an S+F strategy and 11.938% for an I+F strategy.

What do you think about this? Join the TSPcenter forum and let me know. My gut tells me we are in for a bad summer. Of course that could be a result of the pepperoni pizza I just ate.

Stock alert program satisfies need for speed

Online investing continues to be popular among consumers, due in part to the fact that it meets most Americans' requirements - it's fast, easy and convenient.

In fact, according to research conducted by business research firm JupiterResearch, online trading households are expected to grow from 17.3 million in 2005 to 22 million by 2010.

With so many companies competing for a piece of that pie, it can be difficult at best for consumers to navigate the ever-changing landscape of online investing.

For many, the hardest part is not making that initial stock purchase, but investigating the best (and worst) buys.

So, where does one start?

Fortunately, with the advent of the Internet, consumers are only a keystroke away from a plethora of information on the good, the bad and the awful. The downside? Users can be so overwhelmed by the amount of data that the task of researching stocks can be daunting.

One company is helping Internet investors by making it easier for them to get only the news and stock alerts they want.

Centale Inc. (OTC BB: CNTL), based in Fort Lauderdale, Fla., is building a "real time" comprehensive news and stock alert application that is keyword-programmable called "Market Fragger." Forbes. com will be the first to implement this service.

The system will allow users to customize financial news by inputting their own search criteria. The information from the search is then delivered directly to the investor's desktop on both PC and Macintosh. Centale also plans to release a wireless application version.

This capability can potentially allow the investor to spend less time searching and more time making smart investing decisions.

Forbes. com has approximately 8 million to 10 million visitors per month.

While there is no doubt that computerized trading can be faster, cheaper and more convenient than going through a traditional brokerage house, it's important to research your options to determine what's best for you and your portfolio.

Do any companies offer free online stock trading

While some companies offer what they claim is "free online stock trading," no company can ever realistically offer a product for free, unless they are a non-profit organization with a stated goal to help bad stock traders learn how to trade better. And because no such organizations exist, you will have to trade with a company that charges you fees, whether it is explicitly or implicitly.

Companies that offer "free online stock trading" are generally offering free access to a members-only online stock trading site, which will allow you to use a range of stock trading analysis tools; it will also usually give you access to dozens of free stock tips from different sources, often including relevant newspaper clippings about publicly-owned companies.

If you opt for a "free online stock trading" company that gives you a free membership, that site will likely generate revenue by selling ad space or by charging commissions on trades. This means that your stock trading experience may be significantly inhibited by pop-ups, flashy ads, and biased information; or it may mean that you will have to pay excessive fees every time you make a trade.

On the other hand, some "free online stock trading" companies charge membership fees, but do not charge for trades. If you plan to make a lot of small stock trades each month, then you should consider opting for one of these companies, which will charge you each month, but wont require you to pay fees when you trade. However, on the other hand, if you plan to make few large trades, then you should consider selecting one of the online stock trading companies that will charge you per trade, rather than per month.

Keep in mind that there is no best solution to this problem for every person. The best solution for one trader may be completely different for you. This is why is it is crucial to inspect each deal in terms of what it will offer you personally as a trader.

Stock trading profit earnings can still be had today

Day trading most commonly refers to the practice of buying and selling stocks during the day so that at the end of the day you don't hold any shares overnight; you sell as many shares as you buy. You make money on the difference between the purchase and sales prices.

The main motivation for this style of trading is to make money every day so you don't sit on the shares , plus of course you eliminate the risk that the shares go down in value overnight. the motivation of this style of trading is to reduce the risk of holding a position overnight where the open price may have significantly changed from the previous day's closing price.

NASDAQ defined day trading by saying somebody is a Daytrader if he makes more than four buy and sell orders over a five-day period.

Prior to the year 2000 it was not uncommon for some of the most successful Daytraders to make more than a million dollars in a single day.

There were dozens of Daytrading Chatrooms where people were "told" what to buy and when to buy it.

Some Chatrooms had more than 500 members.

And most Daytraders, it is estimated as high as 99%, lost their shirt.

One of the reasons they lost their shirt is because they could trade on Margin.

Trading on Margin means that the brokerage firm which executes your trades will lend you up to 5 times your investment.

So if you had $10,000 in your trading account you could in some cases trade with $50,000.

However, if you lost on your trades, repayment was due immediately.

Since the heady dot com days of the year 2000 DayTrading has gone out of style and out of range.

Most brokerage firms have gone under or have consolidated, and staff has been reduced in the remaining firms by about 80%.

Trades that used to cost $35 to execute can now be had for as low as $4.-

Initially it happened because President Bush talked the economy down and Mr Greenspan kept on raising the interest rate to such a level that all optimism disappeared from the Market.

Up until this time like clockwork 2 or 3 days a week there were Stocks, mainly Internet Stocks, that would rise more than 30% early in the morning and then fall the same amount five minutes before closing so people could take profit.

If you were on the ball you could make a lot of money as a DayTrader.

You could also lose a lot of money.

Those days no longer exist.

It is very rare to see stocks vary more than 30% in one day so the profit potential first of all is not as great, and the ability to catch a percentage of the increase in the price of a stock has also lessened.

One of the reasons also is that Internet Stocks which were totally overvalued are no longer overvalued and as a matter of fact have risen much less than any other type of Stock.

Another reason is that there are very few IPO's and even Google's IPO did not take off for quite some time.

If it was not for the spectacular performance of Google , Internet Stocks lost more than 8% in 2005.

Even Ebay lost more than a quarter of its value.

However, if you are shrewd, you can still make money as a DayTrader but it ain't easy.

What do you think happens when a company invents a car that runs on water?

If you could get news about this company very early you could make a lot of money.

Not many people know that you can trade the NASDAQ Stock Market as early as 6 AM.

So if you are a Stock Market News Hound and like to get up really early in the morning and have nerves of steel you could buy the stock at 6 AM and sell it at 9.29 AM to everybody else starting a regular trading day.

This will not happen very often, the fact that there is spectacular news.

But if you are patient it may happen once a month.

Stock market window dressing the art of looking smart

As investors, and we all are investors these days, it is important that we understand the idiosyncrasies of the Stock Market pricing data we use to help us in our decision making efforts. On Wall Street, investing can be a minefield for those who don't take the time to appreciate why securities prices are at the levels that appear on quarterly account statements. At least four times per year, security prices are more a function of institutional marketing practices than they are a reflection of the economic forces that we would like to think are their primary determining factors. Not even close... Around the end of every calendar quarter, we hear the financial media matter-of-factly report that Institutional Window Dressing Activities" are in full swing. But that is as far, and as deep, as it ever goes. What are they talking about, and just what does it mean to you as an investor?

There are at least three forms of Window Dressing, none of which should make you particularly happy and all of which should make you question the integrity of organizations that either authorize, implement, or condone their use. The better-known variety involves the culling from portfolios of stocks with significant losses and replacing them with shares of companies whose shares have been the most popular during recent months. Not only does this practice make the managers look smarter on reports sent to major clients, it also makes Mutual Fund performance numbers appear significantly more attractive to prospective "fund switchers". On the sell side of the ledger, prices of the weakest performing stocks are pushed down even further. Obviously, all fund managements will take part in the ritual if they choose to survive. This form of window dressing is, by most definitions, neither investing nor speculating. But no one seems to care about the ethics, the legality, or the fact that this "Buy High, Sell Low" picture is being painted with your Mutual Fund palette.

A more subtle form of Window Dressing takes place throughout the calendar quarter, but is "unwound" before the portfolio's Quarterly Reports reach the glossies. In this less prevalent (but even more fraudulent) variety, the managers invest in securities that are clearly out of sync with the fund's published investment policy during a period when their particular specialty has fallen from grace with the gurus. For example, adding commodity ETFs, or popular emerging country issues to a Large Cap Value Fund, etc. Profits are taken before the Quarter Ends so that the fund's holdings report remains uncompromised, but with enhanced quarterly results. A third form of Window Dressing is referred to as "survivorship", but it impacts Mutual Fund investors alone while the others undermine the information used by (and the market performance of) individual security investors. You may want to research it.

I cannot understand why the media reports so superficially on these "business as usual" practices. Perhaps ninety percent of the price movement in the equity markets is the result of institutional trading, and institutional money managers seem to be more concerned with politics and marketing than they are with investing. They are trying to impress their major clients with their brilliance by reporting ownership of all the hot tickets and none of the major losers. At the same time, they are manipulating the performance statistics contained in their promotional materials. They have made "Buy High, Sell Low" the accepted investment strategy of the Mutual Fund industry. Meanwhile, individual security investors receive inaccurate signals and incur collateral losses by moving in the wrong direction.

From an analytical point of view, this quarterly market value reality (artificially created demand for some stocks and unwarranted weakness in others) throws almost any individual security or market sector statistic totally out of wack with the underlying company fundamentals. But it gets even more fuzzy, and not in the lovable sense. Just for the fun of it, think about the "demand pull" impact of an ever-growing list of ETFs. I don't think that I'm alone in thinking that the real meaning of security prices has less and less to do with corporate economics than it does with the morning betting line on ETF ponies... the dot-coms of the new millennium. [Do you remember the "Circle of Gold" from the seventies? Isn't GLD, or IAU, about the same thing?]

As if all of these institutional forces weren't enough, you need also consider the impact of tax code motivated transactions during the always-entertaining final quarter of the year. One would never suspect (after watching millions of CPA directed taxpayers gleefully lose billions of dollars) that the purpose of investing is to make money! The net impact of these (euphemistically labeled) "year end tax saving strategies" is pretty much the same as that of the Type One Window Dressing described above. But here's an off-quarter buying opportunity that you really shouldn't pass up. Simply put, get out there and buy the November 52-week lows, wait for the periodic and mysterious "January Effect" to be reported by the media with eyes wide shut amazement, and pocket some easy profits.

There just may not be a method to actually decipher the true value of a share of common stock. Is market price a function of company fundamentals, artificial demand for "derivative" securities, or various forms of Institutional Window Dressing? But this is a condition that can be used to great financial advantage. With security prices less closely related to those old fashioned fundamental issues such as dividends, projected profits, and unfunded pension liabilities and perhaps more closely related to artificial demand factors, the only operational alternative appears to be trading! Buy the downtrodden (but still fundamentally investment grade) issues and take your profits on those that have risen to inappropriately high levels based on basic measures of quality... and try to get it done before the big players do. To over simplify, a recipe for success would involve shopping for investment grade stocks at bargain prices, allowing them to simmer until a reasonable, pre-defined, profit target is reached, and seasoning the portfolio brew with the discipline to actually implement the profit taking plan.

Yeah, I do miss the days when there were just stocks and bonds, but maybe I'm just a bit too old fashioned. Interesting place Wall Street...

Stock trading 8211 what every investor should know

Never try to fight against a trend.

It may be tempting to buy a falling stock in order to average your costs. In fact, many investors seem to recommend such a step. In practice, in a majority of situations this only results in throwing good money after bad.

Always have a stop loss, for every stock. If your stock moves down, at what price must you definitely sell? If you do not use historical data and technical analysis to arrive at investment decisions, you must have at least a fixed-amount method. Meaning, before you buy you will have to decide how much loss you can comfortably take on that stock, and stick to it.

Never hold on to a stock position that has moved beyond your comfort level.

As the saying goes, take care of your losses and the profits will take care of themselves.

Keep track of your stocks. Even if your stop loss has been triggered and you have exited the stock, the stock could reverse trend and start a fresh uptrend.

As a momentum investor, you should resort to periodical profit booking. When a stock is losing steam, book profits. Later, if the stock shows signs of picking up momentum again, you can always enter, even at higher levels. Your decisions are based on the potential upside from that price.

Always remember that there is an “opportunity cost” to any position. If you have invested in a stock, you have effectively “blocked” that money from being invested in another stock with, perhaps more, potential.

Once again, to repeat: Take care of your losses, and the profits will take care of themselves.

Day trading online in the uk

It is one of the strongest currencies in the world, but the whole economy is not as powerful. It fluctuates up and down, along with trends in privately and publicly-owned companies. England's economy has experienced some very high points, but has also experienced some low points as well.

No matter where you live, you must carefully consider your options before you try to earn a return on your investment; and England is no exception to that rule. But some people in the UK still like to take a risk with their money and one of these risks is day trading online.

Day trading online involves the process of buying and selling shares over the Internet at short notice. Day trading online has been seen by many as a way to get rich quick, but that isn't the half of it. Statistics show that online day traders are having a rough ride, with 70% of online day traders losing money. So if you are looking at getting into the world of online day trading, then you should know the risks that are attached to the service.

But when you are in the world of online day trading then you will get some excellent services given to you. One of these services is a chat room, where you can talk to other buyers and sellers. This is a good way to find out what the next big time company might be, but you have to know if this person is "share ramping," which is the process of talking up the shares artificially. So you have to take the risk of guessing if this person is correct or not and if the information hasn't been authorized.

These days, online trading websites are somewhat risky and can be dangerous. But if you are a professional when it comes to buying and selling shares, then you will know all about the risks and you can make yourself a tidy profit. Day trading online should not be used by beginners, but more used by people that are heavily experienced in the stock market world.

Know your broker before trading online

Proper investment strategies should always include researching your broker, but in today's world of new technologies and online investment, what questions should you be asking?

The following are some key questions to ask your broker, which can save you both time and money:

* What tools are available from your broker? Stock quotes, news, charting, level II data and advanced order types are among many key tools for traders. Be sure your broker has the tools you specifically need.

* How fast are orders being executed? Keep in mind that online trading can significantly speed up the order process in comparison to placing orders over the phone.

For example, RushTrade offers Direct Access Trading, which allows you to direct your order to the execution venue of your choice. This can result in faster executions, improved price and greater control of your orders.

* Does your broker get paid for order flow? Some brokers may receive payments for sending orders to preferred market makers. This can lead to a conflict of interest. Make sure you know your broker's policy.

* Do they offer a trading demo? Find out whether there is a cost involved for a trading demo. RushTrade, for instance, offers a demo of its Direct Access software free on its Web site.

* Is the Web site or trading software easy to use? Dealing with a slow or unwieldy site can really hamper your trade executions when speed is the name of the game.

* Can I trade after hours? Ask yourself whether this is important for your investing needs. RushTrade's Direct Access software will allow after-hours trading.

* Are there any hidden fees? Brokers might tout low commissions but then hit you with unexpected fees. Look for brokers that do not charge low balance, inactivity or maintenance fees.

Profiting from the anomalies - stock markets are not always right

There are many different factors that affect stock market levels on a minute-to-minute basis. This includes inflation data, gross domestic product (GDP), interest rates, unemployment, supply, demand, political changes, and broader economic forces, among others.

Complicating this are some general market trends, which have been determined historically to exist. Like their share-price-based brothers, these stock market anomalies may provide buying opportunities for investors. These anomalies include:

Price-based regularities:

1. Lower-priced stocks tend to outperform higher-priced stocks, and companies tend to appreciate in value after the announcement of stock split.

2. Smaller companies tend to outperform larger companies, which is a key reason for investing in small cap stocks.

3, Companies tend to reserve their price direction in the short and long-term.

4. Companies that have a depressed stock price tend to suffer from tax-loss selling in December and bounce back in January.

Calendar-based regularities:

These regularities allow you to better time your investments in the short-term. Although investors should remember that over the long term the benefits of a regular investment plan (investing each month) far outweigh the benefits of trying to time your investment by a day or two, the following patterns have been shown to occur.

1. Time-of-the-day effect. The beginning and the end of the stock market day exhibit different return and volatility characteristics.

2. Day-of-the-week effect. The stock markets tend to start the week weak and finish the week strong.

3. Week-of-the-month effect. The stock market tends to earn the majority of its returns in the first two weeks of the month.

4. Month-of-the-year effect. The first month of the year tends to show increased returns over the rest of the year. This is referred to as the January effect.

Investors should remember that not every anomaly comes about every time, but making sure you're aware of anomalies will allow you to profit over the long-term and deal with market volatility in the short-term. In short, profit from these anomalies, but don't aim to make use of these anomalies at the expense of your long-term investment objectives.

Go stock trade . com primer what is the stock market all about

Thousands of people who have money in any type of account for their retirement can consider ourselves participating in the Stock market. But have you pondered about the functionality of how this interesting market works? Imagine being at a regular auction, where instead of nice bits such as cars and antiques are being bidded away, think of bits of public companies being auctioned away.

To make a less confusing analogy, think about the role of an auctioneer. The auctioneer's role is to get the highest and best price for each product. Well, the stock exchanges around the globe kinda operate in the same fashion. The auctioneer role, is called a Market Maker. In a stock sale, there is no stable, set price for stocks, but instead, setting the price is the role of the Market Maker.

The price will fluctuate greatly, because the ying and yang of the market, the buyers and sellers, will bid on either the stock going lower, or higher. Usually when you see a stock price go up, it means that the buy price of a stock has increased. This is vice versa when a stock declines in value.

Now I am sure you have seen visuals on the major news networks of how a stock floor looks. You know, the floor where tons of stark raving mad folks, scream numbers and look at monitors and make trades all day. The trading day starts at 9:30 in the morning Eastern Time, and stops at 4:00 in the afternoon Easter Time. Depending on business news, market forecasts, world events, and a few other things thrown in between, can dictate how much volume a market can have in a day.

The last couple of paragraphs have mentioned all of the particulars of two major markets, the New York Stock Exchange(NYSE) and the lesser known American Stock Exchange. But there is a third one too! It is called NASDAQ.

Now what makes NASDAQ quite unique from the other two, is that this market is controlled by computers. Despite the technological advances of this stock market, NASDAQ still has the conventional bidding water of NYSE and American Stock Exchange. The buyers and sellers have their own areas to buy and sell stock, and bid through a quote system called Level II.

The great thing with stock trading, is that in order to be successful with trading stocks, you do not have to be in the pit, bidding like a madman on the hunt for their lives. Not at all! You can now use the very computer in your house, or go to a trading office if you live in a big city and trade stocks. Many different internet based brokerages are out there, and have plenty of materials to get you started on your way to becoming a great stocktrader!

PROFIT ON!

The case for value stock investing... what if

Wall Street Institutions pay billions of dollars annually to convince the investing public that their Economists, Investment Managers, and Analysts can predict future price movements in specific company shares and trends in the overall Stock Market. Such predictions (often presented as “Wethinkisms” or Model Asset Allocation adjustments) make self-deprecating investors everywhere scurry about transacting with each new revelation. “Thou must heed the oracle of Wall Street”… not to be confused with the one from Omaha, who really does know something about investing. “These guys know this stuff so much better than we do” is the rationale of the fools in the street, and on the hill (sic).

What if it’s true, and these pinstriped super humans can actually predict the future, why do you transact the way you do in response? Why would financial professionals of every shape and size holler “sell” when prices move lower, and vice versa? Would this pitch work at the mall? Of course not. Now lets bring this phenomenon into focus. Hmmm, not one of these Institutional Gurus ever doubts the basic truth that both the Market Indices and individual issue prices will continue to move up and down, forever. So, if we were to slowly construct a diversified portfolio of value stocks (My short definition: profitable, dividend paying, NYSE companies.) as they fall in price, we would be able to take profits during the following upward cycle… also forever. Hmmm.

Let's pretend for a (foolish) moment that broad market movements are somewhat predictable. Regardless of the direction, professional advice will always fuel the perceived operative emotion: greed or fear! Wall Street's retail representatives (stock brokers), and the new, internet expert, self-directors, rarely go against the grain of the consensus opinion…particularly the one projected to them by their immediate superior/spouse. You cannot obtain independent thinking from a Wall Street salesperson; it just doesn't fill up the Beemer. Sorry, but you have to be able to think for yourself to stay in balance while pedaling on the Market Cycle. Here's some global advice that you will not hear on the street of dreams (and don't get all huffy until you understand what to buy or to sell as well as when to do so): Sell into rallies. Buy on bad news. Buy slowly; sell quickly. Always sell too soon. Always buy too soon, incrementally. Always have a plan. A plan without buying guidelines and selling targets is not a plan.

Predicting the performance of individual issues is a totally different ball game that requires an even more powerful crystal ball and a whole array of semi-legal and completely illegal relationships that are mostly self serving and useless to average investors. But, again, let's pretend that a mega million-dollar salary and industry recognition as a superstar creates Master of the Universe quality prediction capabilities…I'm sorry. I just can't even pretend that it’s true! The evidence against it is just too great, and the dangers of relying on analytical opinions too real. No one can predict individual issue price movements legally, consistently, or in a timely manner. Face up to this: the risk of loss is real; it can be minimized but not eliminated.

Investing in individual issues has to be done differently, with rules, guidelines, and judgment. It has to be done unemotionally and rationally, monitored regularly, and analyzed with performance evaluation tools that are portfolio specific and without calendar time restrictions. This is not nearly as difficult as it sounds, and if you are a “shopper” looking for bargains elsewhere in your life, you should have no trouble understanding how it works. Not a rocket scientist? Good, and if you are at all familiar with the retailing business, even better. You don’t need any special education evidentiary acronyms or software programs for stock market success… just common sense and emotion control.

Wall Street sells products, and spins reality in whatever manner they feel will produce the best results for those products. The direction of the market doesn’t matter to them and it wouldn't to you either if you had a properly constructed portfolio. If you learn how to deal unemotionally with Wall Street events, and shun the herd mentality, you will find yourself in the proper cyclical mode much more often: buying at lower prices and, as a result, taking profits instead of losses. Just what if…

Coming next: Developing a Value Stock Watch List and Profit Taking Targets.

Beating the s p 500 with stock market timing

Copyright 2006 Equitrend, Inc.

Approximately 75% of fund managers do not beat the S&P 500 year in and year out. How can a basket of 500 hundred stocks beat the majority of actively managed mutual funds? The people who manage these funds are, for the most part, brilliant people. They are highly educated and have access to the most advanced information and decision support systems in the world. So why is it that they do not outperform the S&P 500?

A Quick Test:

Here's a very crude test of management performance: Let's compare the domestic-equity mutual fund performance supplied by Morningstar against the S&P 500 index for one, three, five and ten-year periods, looking back from April 30, 1995. The S&P 500 index is a fair comparison for large, domestic companies.

Our results:

--Of the 1,097 funds Morningstar covered for the one-year period, 110 beat the S&P 500, while 987 fell short. Results ranged from 46.84% to -32.26%, while the S&P 500 attained a 17.44% return.

--During the three-year period, the S&P 500 returned 10.54%, while results in the funds varied from 29.28% to -15.02% compounded annually. Of the total 609 funds, only 266 beat the S&P 500.

--Shifting to the five-year period, of 470 funds, 204 beat the S&P 500. Results ranged from 27.35% to -8.51%, while the index racked up 12.62%.

--At ten years, only 56 of 262 funds managed to beat the index, and results varied from 24.77% to -4.06% compounded annually against 14.78% for the S&P 500.

The fact that most funds do not beat the overall stock market should not be surprising. Since the majority of money invested in the stock market comes from mutual funds, it would be mathematically impossible for the majority all of these funds to out perform the market.

The implied promise held out to investors in actively managed mutual funds is that in exchange for higher fees (relative to index funds), the actively managed fund will deliver superior market performance. There are a host of barriers to fulfilling this implied promise.

Some of the problems are:

--The larger a mutual fund gets, the more difficult it becomes to deliver exceptional performance.

--Although fund size runs counter to performance, fund managers have a strong motivation to let the fund grow as big as possible because the bigger the fund gets, the more money the fund managers make.

--Most skillful mutual fund managers are hired away by hedge funds, where their financial rewards are greater and there are few restrictions on investment techniques.

--By law mutual funds are supposed to be conservative, which in theory limits their potential losses. This conservative stance generally limits their ability to use arbitrage, options, or shorting stocks.

Can You Do Better?

Because of the general inflexibility and restrictions of most mutual funds, your investment capital is not properly hedged against market fluctuations. In most cases, if you compared the beta of the equity exposure held in actively managed mutual funds to an equal equity exposure to the S&P 500 index, your reward/risk ratio would be less rewarding than purchasing an identical equity exposure to the S&P 500 index. So, the answer is, you can do better and beat the S & P 500 by using an effective stock market timing system.

Blockbuster miscalculated

Blockbuster (BBI) is a perfect example of what can go wrong when you misread the industry trends and then realizing it, try desperately to catch up. In the period from late 2001 to 2002, Blockbuster was the leader in the video rental business. Its shares were trading at nearly $30 a share and its market-cap was at around $5.75 billion.

But there was a trend developing towards movie rentals via the Internet. Blockbuster failed to recognize the growing significance of Internet video rentals, a very poor miscalculation on its part. The shares have steadily declined to the current $3.80 to $4.20 channel. Once a large-cap, Blockbuster is now a small-cap and struggling to regain any sense of direction. The company has entered into the Internet DVD rental business but it has a lot of catching up to do.

Fundamentally, Blockbuster has lost money in the last three straight quarters and struggling to grow its revenues, which are forecasted to increase a mere 1.1% in fiscal 2006. Its estimated five-year earnings growth rate is a mere 2.5% per annum, which is pitiful.

Blockbuster also has to deal with its massive debt load of $1.27 billion or a debt-to-equity of 2.73:1, which suggests a weak balance sheet. Couple this with poor working capital and you understand the high financial risk. Faced with stagnant revenue growth and losses, Blockbuster faces a difficult upside battle to regain its lost glory. The odds are stacked against it.

In the face of Blockbuster is online DVD rental company Netflix (NFLX), which debuted in May 200, trading at close to $40 in 2004 before sinking to the $10 level in 2005 before the rally.

Netflix saw the future for DVD rentals and it was online and not via the “brick and mortal” route that Blockbuster decided to maintain. In direct opposite to Blockbuster, Netflix is profitable and has been for the last three straight quarters. It has 4.2 million subscribers and growing. Its revenues are growing and expected to surge 32.5% in fiscal 2007 whereas Blockbuster is seeing non-existent revenue growth.

Blockbuster has entered into the online DVD rental arena but it is well behind Netflix. Moreover, Netflix also operates the online DVD rental business for Wal-Mart Stores (WMT), after the retail giant decided to shut down its own online DVD rental unit and instead let Netflix run it.

Trading at 36.73x its estimated FY06 EPS, Netflix is not cheap. But if it can continue its strong growth and earn the estimated $1.11 per share for the FY07, the valuation becomes more reasonable. The pressure is clearly on Netflix to deliver but it is on the correct path.

Note: you are welcome to post this article on your site if it is financial related. You must cut and paste the bio and make sure the web site link is live. Also please e-mail me to let me know.

Quelling your investment fear

: Investing can be dangerous yet profitable endeavor. Many people have been burnt and decide not to ever invest again. This is the primary fear for investing in anything. They may give you excuse such as 'I don't have enough money' or 'I don't know where to invest'. But the number one fear is always the fear of losing money. If a novice investor knows that he won't lose money, he must have used all means necessary (such as loan) to buy as much investment opportunity possible. Investing here can mean a lot of things from buying gold coin to real estate. However, common stock is the most popular form of investing since more than 50% of the US household invest in it. There are several ways of how to reduce your fear of investing in common stock. Get Educated. When you know more about something, you are more certain of your outcome. When you know how to calculate the fair value of a common stock, you will know your expected return of investment. Remember that the less uncertainty you have, the less risk you undertake. You will also know more about the downside risk of your investment. If a common stock has $ 3 per share of positive net cash, is profitable and is currently trading at $ 5 per share, then you know that it won't trade at below $ 3 per share for a long period of time. Your maximum possible risk here is 40% of your original investment. Start Small. When you begin your investing journey, you have a lot of unknowns. Less education means more unknown which means greater risk. How small should you start? As much money that you can afford to lose. If you still have no idea, then how about $ 1 a day? One dollar a day will give you $ 500,000 after fifty years of investing with 10.5 % return. Even if you have $ 500,000 right now, it is better for you to start small if you are a novice investor. Pay Yourself First. By this, it does not mean that investors use their money to buy unnecessary stuff. Pay Yourself First means that you find investment that can pay you first as investors. What investment can pay you first? One thing that comes to mind is buying a common stock that historically has a steady or increasing dividends. There are one more way to pay yourself first by selling covered call options. For novice investors, however, I suggest we put this subject off until you get really really comfortable with investing in common stock. Learn From Your Mistake. Once you begin investing, the fear of losing money is always there. The best way to learn is from your own mistake. But to hasten your learning curve, we have compiled a list of 15 common investing pitfalls that is frequently committed by novice investors. Will you be fear-free after reading this column? The answer is no. Fear is always there because of uncertainty. Successful investing is about predicting the future which is uncertain. Even investing in your money-market account is uncertain. It involves some small risk. The risk might be inflation being higher than the interest rate offered. There is also uncertainty regarding the direction of interest rate. Interest rate used to be in the high single digits during the 1980s. Look where it is now. We live in uncertain world. Instead of hiding behind the wall, we need to embrace it and educate ourselves to reduce the uncertainty. Doing this will in effect increase our investment return beyond the rate of inflation.

Lack of a trading strategy

If you know the pitfalls of trad¬ing, you can easily avoid them. Small mistakes are inevitable, such as entering the wrong stock symbol or incorrectly setting a buy level. But these are forgivable, and, with luck, even profitable. What you have to avoid, however, are the mistakes due to bad judgment rather than simple errors. These are the “deadly” mistakes which ruin entire trading careers instead of just one or two trades. To avoid these pitfalls, you have to watch yourself closely and stay diligent.

Think of trading mistakes like driving a car on icy roads: if you know that driving on ice is dangerous, you can avoid traveling in a sleet storm. But if you don’t know about the dangers of ice, you might drive as if there were no threat, only realizing your mistake once you’re already off the road.

Although trading involves risk, never treat it like gambling. You must have a solid trading strategy, one which you plan, test, and revise repeatedly. You need to stick to this strategy, and never act on spur-of-the-moment decisions. All you do when you act on a gut feeling is jeopardize any and all of the thoughtful planning you’ve done by giving yourself completely over to chance. Remember that you can never control where a single trade will end up, but you do have control over a long-term plan.

And don’t evaluate your performance on the basis of individual trades. A gambler might think that a small loss is a failure while one huge risky gain means success. Traders should never think this way. Instead, judge yourself by the consistency and profitability of your overall strategy. This is the only way to stay in control of your trading success.

To do this, of course, you have to build a solid strategy. This means developing a set of pre-defined rules that you follow consistently. You should set goals for each week, or possibly each month (but never for a single day, as there are too many things you won’t be able to control over such a short period of time). Next, decide on realistic profits and losses for each trade. Then, according to these markers you’ve set for yourself, carry out your plan without exceptions.

If your set profit for a trade is, say, $300, sell when you reach that milestone, even if you have a feeling the stock will rise. Otherwise, you corrupt your plan with too much risk, and you’ll never know if your overall strategy was successful or not. You may have gotten lucky with one trade, but you haven’t determined any kind of consistency.

Keeping to a strategy will allow you to revise what you’re doing, learning which goals and limits will work and which won’t. Straying from your strategy teaches you nothing useful that you can apply over the course of your trading career. So, while you may gain a few hundred, or even thousands, of dollars on a single trade, who knows how much knowledge you sacrificed, knowledge could have gained you tens or even hundreds of thousands of dollars in the years to come.

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